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terminfo 5 File Formats



terminfo(5)                   File Formats                  terminfo(5)




NAME

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


SYNOPSIS

       /usr/share/terminfo/*/*


DESCRIPTION

       Terminfo  is  a  data  base  describing terminals, used by
       screen-oriented programs  such  as  nvi(1),  rogue(1)  and
       libraries  such  as curses(3x).  Terminfo describes termi-
       nals by giving a set of capabilities which they  have,  by
       specifying how to perform screen operations, and by speci-
       fying padding requirements and  initialization  sequences.
       This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140816).

       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of `,' separated
       fields (embedded commas may be escaped with a backslash or
       notated  as \054).  White space after the `,' separator is
       ignored.  The first entry  for  each  terminal  gives  the
       names  which  are known for the terminal, separated by `|'
       characters.  The first  name  given  is  the  most  common
       abbreviation  for the terminal, the last name given should
       be a long name fully identifying  the  terminal,  and  all
       others  are  understood as synonyms for the terminal name.
       All names but the last should be in lower case and contain
       no  blanks;  the last name may well contain upper case and
       blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated
       as  comments.  While comment lines are legal at any point,
       the output of captoinfo and infotocap  (aliases  for  tic)
       will move comments so they occur only between entries.

       Newlines  and  leading  tabs  may  be  used for formatting
       entries for readability.  These are  removed  from  parsed
       entries.   The  infocmp -f option relies on this to format
       if-then-else expressions: the result can be read by tic.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should
       be chosen using the following conventions.  The particular
       piece of hardware making up the  terminal  should  have  a
       root  name,  thus  "hp2621".  This name should not contain
       hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user pref-
       erences,  should  be indicated by appending a hyphen and a
       mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column  mode  would  be
       vt100-w.  The following suffixes should be used where pos-
       sible:

      Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
      -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
      -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
      -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
      -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
      -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
      -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
      -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
      -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
      -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
      -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
      -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
      -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb

      -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see  the  term(7)
       manual page.

Predefined Capabilities

       The  following  is  a  complete  table of the capabilities
       included in a terminfo description block and available  to
       terminfo-using code.  In each line of the table,

       The  variable  is the name by which the programmer (at the
       terminfo level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used  in  the  text  of  the
       database,  and  is used by a person updating the database.
       Whenever possible, capnames are chosen to be the  same  as
       or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded
       by ECMA-48, which uses identical or very  similar  names).
       Semantics are also intended to match those of the specifi-
       cation.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name  (some
       capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not
       originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an  infor-
       mal  limit  of  5 characters has been adopted to keep them
       short and to allow the tabs in the  source  file  Caps  to
       line up nicely.

       Finally,  the  description  field  attempts  to convey the
       semantics of the capability.  You may find some  codes  in
       the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the description field indicates that the string
              is passed through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary  in  proportion  to
              the number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.


       These are the boolean capabilities:


               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
               Booleans          name   Code
       auto_left_margin          bw     bw   cub1 wraps from col-
                                             umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin         am     am   terminal has auto-
                                             matic margins
       back_color_erase          bce    ut   screen erased with
                                             background color
       can_change                ccc    cc   terminal can re-
                                             define existing col-
                                             ors
       ceol_standout_glitch      xhp    xs   standout not erased
                                             by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch           xhpa   YA   only positive motion
                                             for hpa/mhpa caps



       cpi_changes_res           cpix   YF   changing character
                                             pitch changes reso-
                                             lution
       cr_cancels_micro_mode     crxm   YB   using cr turns off
                                             micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso      xt     xt   tabs destructive,
                                             magic so char
                                             (t1061)
       eat_newline_glitch        xenl   xn   newline ignored
                                             after 80 cols (con-
                                             cept)
       erase_overstrike          eo     eo   can erase over-
                                             strikes with a blank
       generic_type              gn     gn   generic line type
       hard_copy                 hc     hc   hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor               chts   HC   cursor is hard to
                                             see
       has_meta_key              km     km   Has a meta key
                                             (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel           daisy  YC   printer needs opera-
                                             tor to change char-
                                             acter set
       has_status_line           hs     hs   has extra status
                                             line
       hue_lightness_saturation  hls    hl   terminal uses only
                                             HLS color notation
                                             (Tektronix)
       insert_null_glitch        in     in   insert mode distin-
                                             guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res           lpix   YG   changing line pitch
                                             changes resolution
       memory_above              da     da   display may be
                                             retained above the
                                             screen
       memory_below              db     db   display may be
                                             retained below the
                                             screen
       move_insert_mode          mir    mi   safe to move while
                                             in insert mode
       move_standout_mode        msgr   ms   safe to move while
                                             in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff            nxon   nx   padding will not
                                             work, xon/xoff
                                             required
       no_esc_ctlc               xsb    xb   beehive (f1=escape,
                                             f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char               npc    NP   pad character does
                                             not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region    ndscr  ND   scrolling region is
                                             non-destructive
       non_rev_rmcup             nrrmc  NR   smcup does not
                                             reverse rmcup
       over_strike               os     os   terminal can over-
                                             strike
       prtr_silent               mc5i   5i   printer will not
                                             echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch           xvpa   YD   only positive motion
                                             for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin    sam    YE   printing in last
                                             column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok        eslok  es   escape can be used
                                             on the status line
       tilde_glitch              hz     hz   cannot print ~'s
                                             (hazeltine)


       transparent_underline     ul     ul   underline character
                                             overstrikes
       xon_xoff                  xon    xo   terminal uses
                                             xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:


               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                Numeric          name   Code
       columns                   cols   co   number of columns in
                                             a line
       init_tabs                 it     it   tabs initially every
                                             # spaces
       label_height              lh     lh   rows in each label
       label_width               lw     lw   columns in each
                                             label
       lines                     lines  li   number of lines on
                                             screen or page
       lines_of_memory           lm     lm   lines of memory if >
                                             line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch       xmc    sg   number of blank
                                             characters left by
                                             smso or rmso
       max_attributes            ma     ma   maximum combined
                                             attributes terminal
                                             can handle
       max_colors                colors Co   maximum number of
                                             colors on screen
       max_pairs                 pairs  pa   maximum number of
                                             color-pairs on the
                                             screen
       maximum_windows           wnum   MW   maximum number of
                                             defineable windows
       no_color_video            ncv    NC   video attributes
                                             that cannot be used
                                             with colors
       num_labels                nlab   Nl   number of labels on
                                             screen
       padding_baud_rate         pb     pb   lowest baud rate
                                             where padding needed
       virtual_terminal          vt     vt   virtual terminal
                                             number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line         wsl    ws   number of columns in
                                             status line

       The following numeric  capabilities  are  present  in  the
       SVr4.0  term  structure, but are not yet documented in the
       man page.  They came in with SVr4's printer support.


               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                Numeric          name   Code
       bit_image_entwining       bitwin Yo   number of passes for
                                             each bit-image row
       bit_image_type            bitype Yp   type of bit-image
                                             device
       buffer_capacity           bufsz  Ya   numbers of bytes
                                             buffered before
                                             printing
       buttons                   btns   BT   number of buttons on
                                             mouse
       dot_horz_spacing          spinh  Yc   spacing of dots hor-
                                             izontally in dots
                                             per inch

       dot_vert_spacing          spinv  Yb   spacing of pins ver-
                                             tically in pins per
                                             inch
       max_micro_address         maddr  Yd   maximum value in
                                             micro_..._address
       max_micro_jump            mjump  Ye   maximum value in
                                             parm_..._micro
       micro_col_size            mcs    Yf   character step size
                                             when in micro mode
       micro_line_size           mls    Yg   line step size when
                                             in micro mode
       number_of_pins            npins  Yh   numbers of pins in
                                             print-head
       output_res_char           orc    Yi   horizontal resolu-
                                             tion in units per
                                             line
       output_res_horz_inch      orhi   Yk   horizontal resolu-
                                             tion in units per
                                             inch
       output_res_line           orl    Yj   vertical resolution
                                             in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch      orvi   Yl   vertical resolution
                                             in units per inch
       print_rate                cps    Ym   print rate in char-
                                             acters per second
       wide_char_size            widcs  Yn   character step size
                                             when in double wide
                                             mode

       These are the string capabilities:


               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                String           name   Code
       acs_chars                 acsc   ac   graphics charset
                                             pairs, based on
                                             vt100
       back_tab                  cbt    bt   back tab (P)
       bell                      bel    bl   audible signal
                                             (bell) (P)
       carriage_return           cr     cr   carriage return (P*)
                                             (P*)
       change_char_pitch         cpi    ZA   Change number of
                                             characters per inch
                                             to #1
       change_line_pitch         lpi    ZB   Change number of
                                             lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz           chr    ZC   Change horizontal
                                             resolution to #1
       change_res_vert           cvr    ZD   Change vertical res-
                                             olution to #1
       change_scroll_region      csr    cs   change region to
                                             line #1 to line #2
                                             (P)
       char_padding              rmp    rP   like ip but when in
                                             insert mode
       clear_all_tabs            tbc    ct   clear all tab stops
                                             (P)
       clear_margins             mgc    MC   clear right and left
                                             soft margins
       clear_screen              clear  cl   clear screen and
                                             home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                   el1    cb   Clear to beginning
                                             of line


       clr_eol                   el     ce   clear to end of line
                                             (P)
       clr_eos                   ed     cd   clear to end of
                                             screen (P*)
       column_address            hpa    ch   horizontal position
                                             #1, absolute (P)
       command_character         cmdch  CC   terminal settable
                                             cmd character in
                                             prototype !?
       create_window             cwin   CW   define a window #1
                                             from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address            cup    cm   move to row #1 col-
                                             umns #2
       cursor_down               cud1   do   down one line
       cursor_home               home   ho   home cursor (if no
                                             cup)
       cursor_invisible          civis  vi   make cursor invisi-
                                             ble
       cursor_left               cub1   le   move left one space
       cursor_mem_address        mrcup  CM   memory relative cur-
                                             sor addressing, move
                                             to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal             cnorm  ve   make cursor appear
                                             normal (undo
                                             civis/cvvis)
       cursor_right              cuf1   nd   non-destructive
                                             space (move right
                                             one space)
       cursor_to_ll              ll     ll   last line, first
                                             column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                 cuu1   up   up one line
       cursor_visible            cvvis  vs   make cursor very
                                             visible
       define_char               defc   ZE   Define a character
                                             #1, #2 dots wide,
                                             descender #3
       delete_character          dch1   dc   delete character
                                             (P*)
       delete_line               dl1    dl   delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                dial   DI   dial number #1
       dis_status_line           dsl    ds   disable status line
       display_clock             dclk   DK   display clock
       down_half_line            hd     hd   half a line down
       ena_acs                   enacs  eA   enable alternate
                                             char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode    smacs  as   start alternate
                                             character set (P)
       enter_am_mode             smam   SA   turn on automatic
                                             margins
       enter_blink_mode          blink  mb   turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode           bold   md   turn on bold (extra
                                             bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode             smcup  ti   string to start pro-
                                             grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode         smdc   dm   enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode            dim    mh   turn on half-bright
                                             mode
       enter_doublewide_mode     swidm  ZF   Enter double-wide
                                             mode
       enter_draft_quality       sdrfq  ZG   Enter draft-quality
                                             mode
       enter_insert_mode         smir   im   enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode        sitm   ZH   Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode       slm    ZI   Start leftward car-
                                             riage motion

       enter_micro_mode          smicm  ZJ   Start micro-motion
                                             mode
       enter_near_letter_quality snlq   ZK   Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality      snrmq  ZL   Enter normal-quality
                                             mode
       enter_protected_mode      prot   mp   turn on protected
                                             mode
       enter_reverse_mode        rev    mr   turn on reverse
                                             video mode
       enter_secure_mode         invis  mk   turn on blank mode
                                             (characters invisi-
                                             ble)
       enter_shadow_mode         sshm   ZM   Enter shadow-print
                                             mode
       enter_standout_mode       smso   so   begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode      ssubm  ZN   Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode    ssupm  ZO   Enter superscript
                                             mode
       enter_underline_mode      smul   us   begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode         sum    ZP   Start upward car-
                                             riage motion
       enter_xon_mode            smxon  SX   turn on xon/xoff
                                             handshaking
       erase_chars               ech    ec   erase #1 characters
                                             (P)
       exit_alt_charset_mode     rmacs  ae   end alternate char-
                                             acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode              rmam   RA   turn off automatic
                                             margins
       exit_attribute_mode       sgr0   me   turn off all
                                             attributes
       exit_ca_mode              rmcup  te   strings to end pro-
                                             grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode          rmdc   ed   end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode      rwidm  ZQ   End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode          rmir   ei   exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode         ritm   ZR   End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode        rlm    ZS   End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode           rmicm  ZT   End micro-motion
                                             mode
       exit_shadow_mode          rshm   ZU   End shadow-print
                                             mode
       exit_standout_mode        rmso   se   exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode       rsubm  ZV   End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode     rsupm  ZW   End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode       rmul   ue   exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode          rum    ZX   End reverse charac-
                                             ter motion
       exit_xon_mode             rmxon  RX   turn off xon/xoff
                                             handshaking
       fixed_pause               pause  PA   pause for 2-3 sec-
                                             onds
       flash_hook                hook   fh   flash switch hook
       flash_screen              flash  vb   visible bell (may
                                             not move cursor)
       form_feed                 ff     ff   hardcopy terminal
                                             page eject (P*)
       from_status_line          fsl    fs   return from status
                                             line
       goto_window               wingo  WG   go to window #1
       hangup                    hup    HU   hang-up phone
       init_1string              is1    i1   initialization
                                             string
       init_2string              is2    is   initialization
                                             string

       init_3string              is3    i3   initialization
                                             string
       init_file                 if     if   name of initializa-
                                             tion file
       init_prog                 iprog  iP   path name of program
                                             for initialization
       initialize_color          initc  Ic   initialize color #1
                                             to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair           initp  Ip   Initialize color
                                             pair #1 to
                                             fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                             bg=(#5,#6,#7)
       insert_character          ich1   ic   insert character (P)
       insert_line               il1    al   insert line (P*)
       insert_padding            ip     ip   insert padding after
                                             inserted character
       key_a1                    ka1    K1   upper left of keypad
       key_a3                    ka3    K3   upper right of key-
                                             pad
       key_b2                    kb2    K2   center of keypad
       key_backspace             kbs    kb   backspace key
       key_beg                   kbeg   @1   begin key
       key_btab                  kcbt   kB   back-tab key
       key_c1                    kc1    K4   lower left of keypad
       key_c3                    kc3    K5   lower right of key-
                                             pad
       key_cancel                kcan   @2   cancel key
       key_catab                 ktbc   ka   clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                 kclr   kC   clear-screen or
                                             erase key
       key_close                 kclo   @3   close key
       key_command               kcmd   @4   command key
       key_copy                  kcpy   @5   copy key
       key_create                kcrt   @6   create key
       key_ctab                  kctab  kt   clear-tab key
       key_dc                    kdch1  kD   delete-character key
       key_dl                    kdl1   kL   delete-line key
       key_down                  kcud1  kd   down-arrow key
       key_eic                   krmir  kM   sent by rmir or smir
                                             in insert mode
       key_end                   kend   @7   end key
       key_enter                 kent   @8   enter/send key
       key_eol                   kel    kE   clear-to-end-of-line
                                             key
       key_eos                   ked    kS   clear-to-end-of-
                                             screen key
       key_exit                  kext   @9   exit key
       key_f0                    kf0    k0   F0 function key
       key_f1                    kf1    k1   F1 function key
       key_f10                   kf10   k;   F10 function key
       key_f11                   kf11   F1   F11 function key
       key_f12                   kf12   F2   F12 function key
       key_f13                   kf13   F3   F13 function key
       key_f14                   kf14   F4   F14 function key
       key_f15                   kf15   F5   F15 function key
       key_f16                   kf16   F6   F16 function key
       key_f17                   kf17   F7   F17 function key
       key_f18                   kf18   F8   F18 function key
       key_f19                   kf19   F9   F19 function key
       key_f2                    kf2    k2   F2 function key
       key_f20                   kf20   FA   F20 function key
       key_f21                   kf21   FB   F21 function key
       key_f22                   kf22   FC   F22 function key
       key_f23                   kf23   FD   F23 function key
       key_f24                   kf24   FE   F24 function key

       key_f25                   kf25   FF   F25 function key
       key_f26                   kf26   FG   F26 function key
       key_f27                   kf27   FH   F27 function key
       key_f28                   kf28   FI   F28 function key
       key_f29                   kf29   FJ   F29 function key
       key_f3                    kf3    k3   F3 function key
       key_f30                   kf30   FK   F30 function key
       key_f31                   kf31   FL   F31 function key
       key_f32                   kf32   FM   F32 function key
       key_f33                   kf33   FN   F33 function key
       key_f34                   kf34   FO   F34 function key
       key_f35                   kf35   FP   F35 function key
       key_f36                   kf36   FQ   F36 function key
       key_f37                   kf37   FR   F37 function key
       key_f38                   kf38   FS   F38 function key
       key_f39                   kf39   FT   F39 function key
       key_f4                    kf4    k4   F4 function key
       key_f40                   kf40   FU   F40 function key
       key_f41                   kf41   FV   F41 function key
       key_f42                   kf42   FW   F42 function key
       key_f43                   kf43   FX   F43 function key
       key_f44                   kf44   FY   F44 function key
       key_f45                   kf45   FZ   F45 function key
       key_f46                   kf46   Fa   F46 function key
       key_f47                   kf47   Fb   F47 function key
       key_f48                   kf48   Fc   F48 function key
       key_f49                   kf49   Fd   F49 function key
       key_f5                    kf5    k5   F5 function key
       key_f50                   kf50   Fe   F50 function key
       key_f51                   kf51   Ff   F51 function key
       key_f52                   kf52   Fg   F52 function key
       key_f53                   kf53   Fh   F53 function key
       key_f54                   kf54   Fi   F54 function key
       key_f55                   kf55   Fj   F55 function key
       key_f56                   kf56   Fk   F56 function key
       key_f57                   kf57   Fl   F57 function key
       key_f58                   kf58   Fm   F58 function key
       key_f59                   kf59   Fn   F59 function key
       key_f6                    kf6    k6   F6 function key
       key_f60                   kf60   Fo   F60 function key
       key_f61                   kf61   Fp   F61 function key
       key_f62                   kf62   Fq   F62 function key
       key_f63                   kf63   Fr   F63 function key
       key_f7                    kf7    k7   F7 function key
       key_f8                    kf8    k8   F8 function key
       key_f9                    kf9    k9   F9 function key
       key_find                  kfnd   @0   find key
       key_help                  khlp   %1   help key
       key_home                  khome  kh   home key
       key_ic                    kich1  kI   insert-character key
       key_il                    kil1   kA   insert-line key
       key_left                  kcub1  kl   left-arrow key
       key_ll                    kll    kH   lower-left key (home
                                             down)
       key_mark                  kmrk   %2   mark key
       key_message               kmsg   %3   message key
       key_move                  kmov   %4   move key
       key_next                  knxt   %5   next key
       key_npage                 knp    kN   next-page key
       key_open                  kopn   %6   open key
       key_options               kopt   %7   options key
       key_ppage                 kpp    kP   previous-page key
       key_previous              kprv   %8   previous key
       key_print                 kprt   %9   print key
       key_redo                  krdo   %0   redo key

       key_reference             kref   &1   reference key
       key_refresh               krfr   &2   refresh key
       key_replace               krpl   &3   replace key
       key_restart               krst   &4   restart key
       key_resume                kres   &5   resume key
       key_right                 kcuf1  kr   right-arrow key
       key_save                  ksav   &6   save key
       key_sbeg                  kBEG   &9   shifted begin key
       key_scancel               kCAN   &0   shifted cancel key
       key_scommand              kCMD   *1   shifted command key
       key_scopy                 kCPY   *2   shifted copy key
       key_screate               kCRT   *3   shifted create key
       key_sdc                   kDC    *4   shifted delete-char-
                                             acter key
       key_sdl                   kDL    *5   shifted delete-line
                                             key
       key_select                kslt   *6   select key
       key_send                  kEND   *7   shifted end key
       key_seol                  kEOL   *8   shifted clear-to-
                                             end-of-line key
       key_sexit                 kEXT   *9   shifted exit key
       key_sf                    kind   kF   scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                 kFND   *0   shifted find key
       key_shelp                 kHLP   #1   shifted help key
       key_shome                 kHOM   #2   shifted home key
       key_sic                   kIC    #3   shifted insert-char-
                                             acter key
       key_sleft                 kLFT   #4   shifted left-arrow
                                             key
       key_smessage              kMSG   %a   shifted message key
       key_smove                 kMOV   %b   shifted move key
       key_snext                 kNXT   %c   shifted next key
       key_soptions              kOPT   %d   shifted options key
       key_sprevious             kPRV   %e   shifted previous key
       key_sprint                kPRT   %f   shifted print key
       key_sr                    kri    kR   scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                 kRDO   %g   shifted redo key
       key_sreplace              kRPL   %h   shifted replace key
       key_sright                kRIT   %i   shifted right-arrow
                                             key
       key_srsume                kRES   %j   shifted resume key
       key_ssave                 kSAV   !1   shifted save key
       key_ssuspend              kSPD   !2   shifted suspend key
       key_stab                  khts   kT   set-tab key
       key_sundo                 kUND   !3   shifted undo key
       key_suspend               kspd   &7   suspend key
       key_undo                  kund   &8   undo key
       key_up                    kcuu1  ku   up-arrow key
       keypad_local              rmkx   ke   leave 'key-
                                             board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit               smkx   ks   enter 'key-
                                             board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0                    lf0    l0   label on function
                                             key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                    lf1    l1   label on function
                                             key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                   lf10   la   label on function
                                             key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                    lf2    l2   label on function
                                             key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                    lf3    l3   label on function
                                             key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                    lf4    l4   label on function
                                             key f4 if not f4


       lab_f5                    lf5    l5   label on function
                                             key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                    lf6    l6   label on function
                                             key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                    lf7    l7   label on function
                                             key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                    lf8    l8   label on function
                                             key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                    lf9    l9   label on function
                                             key f9 if not f9
       label_format              fln    Lf   label format
       label_off                 rmln   LF   turn off soft labels
       label_on                  smln   LO   turn on soft labels
       meta_off                  rmm    mo   turn off meta mode
       meta_on                   smm    mm   turn on meta mode
                                             (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address      mhpa   ZY   Like column_address
                                             in micro mode
       micro_down                mcud1  ZZ   Like cursor_down in
                                             micro mode
       micro_left                mcub1  Za   Like cursor_left in
                                             micro mode
       micro_right               mcuf1  Zb   Like cursor_right in
                                             micro mode
       micro_row_address         mvpa   Zc   Like row_address #1
                                             in micro mode
       micro_up                  mcuu1  Zd   Like cursor_up in
                                             micro mode
       newline                   nel    nw   newline (behave like
                                             cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins             porder Ze   Match software bits
                                             to print-head pins
       orig_colors               oc     oc   Set all color pairs
                                             to the original ones
       orig_pair                 op     op   Set default pair to
                                             its original value
       pad_char                  pad    pc   padding char
                                             (instead of null)
       parm_dch                  dch    DC   delete #1 characters
                                             (P*)
       parm_delete_line          dl     DL   delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor          cud    DO   down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro           mcud   Zf   Like parm_down_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_ich                  ich    IC   insert #1 characters
                                             (P*)
       parm_index                indn   SF   scroll forward #1
                                             lines (P)
       parm_insert_line          il     AL   insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor          cub    LE   move #1 characters
                                             to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro           mcub   Zg   Like parm_left_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor         cuf    RI   move #1 characters
                                             to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro          mcuf   Zh   Like parm_right_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex               rin    SR   scroll back #1 lines
                                             (P)
       parm_up_cursor            cuu    UP   up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro             mcuu   Zi   Like parm_up_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       pkey_key                  pfkey  pk   program function key
                                             #1 to type string #2


       pkey_local                pfloc  pl   program function key
                                             #1 to execute string
                                             #2
       pkey_xmit                 pfx    px   program function key
                                             #1 to transmit
                                             string #2
       plab_norm                 pln    pn   program label #1 to
                                             show string #2
       print_screen              mc0    ps   print contents of
                                             screen
       prtr_non                  mc5p   pO   turn on printer for
                                             #1 bytes
       prtr_off                  mc4    pf   turn off printer
       prtr_on                   mc5    po   turn on printer
       pulse                     pulse  PU   select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                qdial  QD   dial number #1 with-
                                             out checking
       remove_clock              rmclk  RC   remove clock
       repeat_char               rep    rp   repeat char #1 #2
                                             times (P*)
       req_for_input             rfi    RF   send next input char
                                             (for ptys)
       reset_1string             rs1    r1   reset string
       reset_2string             rs2    r2   reset string
       reset_3string             rs3    r3   reset string
       reset_file                rf     rf   name of reset file
       restore_cursor            rc     rc   restore cursor to
                                             position of last
                                             save_cursor
       row_address               vpa    cv   vertical position #1
                                             absolute (P)
       save_cursor               sc     sc   save current cursor
                                             position (P)
       scroll_forward            ind    sf   scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse            ri     sr   scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set           scs    Zj   Select character
                                             set, #1
       set_attributes            sgr    sa   define video
                                             attributes #1-#9
                                             (PG9)
       set_background            setb   Sb   Set background color
                                             #1
       set_bottom_margin         smgb   Zk   Set bottom margin at
                                             current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm    smgbp  Zl   Set bottom margin at
                                             line #1 or (if smgtp
                                             is not given) #2
                                             lines from bottom
       set_clock                 sclk   SC   set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                             mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair            scp    sp   Set current color
                                             pair to #1
       set_foreground            setf   Sf   Set foreground color
                                             #1
       set_left_margin           smgl   ML   set left soft margin
                                             at current column.
                                             See smgl. (ML is not
                                             in BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm      smglp  Zm   Set left (right)
                                             margin at column #1
       set_right_margin          smgr   MR   set right soft mar-
                                             gin at current col-
                                             umn
       set_right_margin_parm     smgrp  Zn   Set right margin at
                                             column #1

       set_tab                   hts    st   set a tab in every
                                             row, current columns
       set_top_margin            smgt   Zo   Set top margin at
                                             current line
       set_top_margin_parm       smgtp  Zp   Set top (bottom)
                                             margin at row #1
       set_window                wind   wi   current window is
                                             lines #1-#2 cols
                                             #3-#4
       start_bit_image           sbim   Zq   Start printing bit
                                             image graphics
       start_char_set_def        scsd   Zr   Start character set
                                             definition #1, with
                                             #2 characters in the
                                             set
       stop_bit_image            rbim   Zs   Stop printing bit
                                             image graphics
       stop_char_set_def         rcsd   Zt   End definition of
                                             character set #1
       subscript_characters      subcs  Zu   List of subscript-
                                             able characters
       superscript_characters    supcs  Zv   List of superscript-
                                             able characters
       tab                       ht     ta   tab to next 8-space
                                             hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr            docr   Zw   Printing any of
                                             these characters
                                             causes CR
       to_status_line            tsl    ts   move to status line,
                                             column #1
       tone                      tone   TO   select touch tone
                                             dialing
       underline_char            uc     uc   underline char and
                                             move past it
       up_half_line              hu     hu   half a line up
       user0                     u0     u0   User string #0
       user1                     u1     u1   User string #1
       user2                     u2     u2   User string #2
       user3                     u3     u3   User string #3
       user4                     u4     u4   User string #4
       user5                     u5     u5   User string #5
       user6                     u6     u6   User string #6
       user7                     u7     u7   User string #7
       user8                     u8     u8   User string #8
       user9                     u9     u9   User string #9
       wait_tone                 wait   WA   wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character            xoffc  XF   XOFF character
       xon_character             xonc   XN   XON character
       zero_motion               zerom  Zx   No motion for subse-
                                             quent character

       The following  string  capabilities  are  present  in  the
       SVr4.0  term structure, but were originally not documented
       in the man page.


               Variable          Cap-     TCap    Description
                String           name     Code
       alt_scancode_esc          scesa    S8   Alternate escape
                                               for scancode emu-
                                               lation
       bit_image_carriage_return bicr     Yv   Move to beginning
                                               of same row
       bit_image_newline         binel    Zz   Move to next row
                                               of the bit image

       bit_image_repeat          birep    Xy   Repeat bit image
                                               cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names            csnm     Zy   Produce #1'th item
                                               from list of char-
                                               acter set names
       code_set_init             csin     ci   Init sequence for
                                               multiple codesets
       color_names               colornm  Yw   Give name for
                                               color #1
       define_bit_image_region   defbi    Yx   Define rectan-
                                               gualar bit image
                                               region
       device_type               devt     dv   Indicate lan-
                                               guage/codeset sup-
                                               port
       display_pc_char           dispc    S1   Display PC charac-
                                               ter #1
       end_bit_image_region      endbi    Yy   End a bit-image
                                               region
       enter_pc_charset_mode     smpch    S2   Enter PC character
                                               display mode
       enter_scancode_mode       smsc     S4   Enter PC scancode
                                               mode
       exit_pc_charset_mode      rmpch    S3   Exit PC character
                                               display mode
       exit_scancode_mode        rmsc     S5   Exit PC scancode
                                               mode
       get_mouse                 getm     Gm   Curses should get
                                               button events,
                                               parameter #1 not
                                               documented.
       key_mouse                 kmous    Km   Mouse event has
                                               occurred
       mouse_info                minfo    Mi   Mouse status
                                               information
       pc_term_options           pctrm    S6   PC terminal
                                               options
       pkey_plab                 pfxl     xl   Program function
                                               key #1 to type
                                               string #2 and show
                                               string #3
       req_mouse_pos             reqmp    RQ   Request mouse
                                               position
       scancode_escape           scesc    S7   Escape for scan-
                                               code emulation
       set0_des_seq              s0ds     s0   Shift to codeset 0
                                               (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq              s1ds     s1   Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq              s2ds     s2   Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq              s3ds     s3   Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background          setab    AB   Set background
                                               color to #1, using
                                               ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground          setaf    AF   Set foreground
                                               color to #1, using
                                               ANSI escape
       set_color_band            setcolor Yz   Change to ribbon
                                               color #1
       set_lr_margin             smglr    ML   Set both left and
                                               right margins to
                                               #1, #2.  (ML is
                                               not in BSD term-
                                               cap).
       set_page_length           slines   YZ   Set page length to
                                               #1 lines

       set_tb_margin             smgtb    MT   Sets both top and
                                               bottom margins to
                                               #1, #2

        The  XSI  Curses  standard added these hardcopy capabili-
        ties.  They were used in some post-4.1 versions of System
        V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI,
        the ncurses termcap names for them are invented.  Accord-
        ing  to  the  XSI  Curses  standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they
        may  not  be  binary-compatible  with  System  V terminfo
        entries after SVr4.1; beware!


                Variable         Cap-   TCap     Description
                 String          name   Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode ehhlm  Xh   Enter horizontal
                                             highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode       elhlm  Xl   Enter left highlight
                                             mode
        enter_low_hl_mode        elohlm Xo   Enter low highlight
                                             mode
        enter_right_hl_mode      erhlm  Xr   Enter right high-
                                             light mode
        enter_top_hl_mode        ethlm  Xt   Enter top highlight
                                             mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm  Xv   Enter vertical high-
                                             light mode
        set_a_attributes         sgr1   sA   Define second set of
                                             video attributes
                                             #1-#6
        set_pglen_inch           slengthYI   Set page length to
                                             #1 hundredth of an
                                             inch (some implemen-
                                             tations use sL for
                                             termcap).

User-Defined Capabilities

       The preceding section listed the predefined  capabilities.
       They  deal  with  some  special  features for terminals no
       longer (or possibly never) produced.   Occasionally  there
       are  special features of newer terminals which are awkward
       or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined capa-
       bilities.

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined
       capabilities.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x
       option  for  this  purpose.   When  -x  is set, tic treats
       unknown capabilities as user-defined.   That  is,  if  tic
       encounters  a capability name which it does not recognize,
       it infers its type (boolean, number or  string)  from  the
       syntax and makes an extended table entry for that capabil-
       ity.  The use_extended_names function makes this  informa-
       tion conditionally available to applications.  The ncurses
       library provides the data leaving most of the behavior  to
       applications:

       o   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with
           "k" are treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by  tic
           can be inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If  the  capability name happens to be two characters,
           the capability is also available through  the  termcap
           interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not
       use a predefined set of capabilities, in practice  it  has
       been  limited  to  the  capabilities  defined  by terminfo
       implementations.  As  a  rule,  user-defined  capabilities
       intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to booleans and numbers to avoid  running  past  the  1023
       byte  limit  assumed  by termcap implementations and their
       applications.  In particular, providing extended  sets  of
       function  keys  (past the 60 numbered keys and the handful
       of special named keys) is best done using the longer names
       available using terminfo.

A Sample Entry

       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal,
       is representative of what a terminfo entry  for  a  modern
       terminal typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               acsc=+\020\,\021-\030.^Y0\333`\004a\261f\370g\361h\260
                    j\331k\277l\332m\300n\305o~p\304q\304r\304s_t\303
                    u\264v\301w\302x\263y\363z\362{\343|\330}\234~\376,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;
                          %?%p2%t;4%;
                          %?%p3%t;7%;
                          %?%p4%t;5%;
                          %?%p6%t;1%;
                          %?%p7%t;8%;
                          %?%p9%t;11%;m,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may continue onto multiple lines by placing white
       space at the beginning of  each  line  except  the  first.
       Comments  may  be  included  on  lines beginning with "#".
       Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the  terminal
           has some particular feature,

       o   numeric  capabilities  giving the size of the terminal
           or the size of particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence  which  can
           be used to perform particular terminal operations.

Types of Capabilities

       All  capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that
       ANSI-standard terminals have automatic margins  (i.e.,  an
       automatic  return  and line-feed when the end of a line is
       reached) is indicated by the  capability  am.   Hence  the
       description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities are
       followed by the character "#" and then a  positive  value.
       Thus  cols, which indicates the number of columns the ter-
       minal has, gives the value  "80"  for  ansi.   Values  for
       numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or
       hexadecimal, using the C programming language  conventions
       (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to
       end of line sequence) are given by the two-character code,
       an  "=",  and  then  a string ending at the next following
       ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided  in  the  string
       valued capabilities for easy encoding of characters there.
       Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character, ^x  maps  to  a
       control-x  for  any appropriate x, and the sequences \n \l
       \r \t \b \f \s give a  newline,  line-feed,  return,  tab,
       backspace, form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0  will  produce  \200,  which  does  not terminate a
           string but behaves as a null character on most  termi-
           nals, providing CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).

           The  reason  for this quirk is to maintain binary com-
           patibility of the compiled terminfo files  with  other
           implementations,  e.g.,  the SVr4 systems, which docu-
           ment this.  Compiled terminfo  files  use  null-termi-
           nated  strings, with no lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with
           other implementations.

       Finally,  characters  may  be  given as three octal digits
       after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in  a  string
       capability,  enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,
       and padding characters are supplied by  tputs  to  provide
       this  delay.   The delay must be a number with at most one
       decimal place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes
       "*"  or  "/"  or  both.   A "*" indicates that the padding
       required is proportional to the number of  lines  affected
       by  the  operation,  and  the  amount  given  is  the per-
       affected-unit padding required.  (In the  case  of  insert
       character,  the  factor  is  still  the  number  of  lines
       affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory  if  the  device
       has  the  xon  capability; it is used for cost computation
       but does not trigger delays.  A "/" suffix indicates  that
       the  padding  is mandatory and forces a delay of the given
       number of milliseconds even on devices for  which  xon  is
       present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.
       To do this, put a period before the capability name.   For
       example, see the second ind in the example above.

Fetching Compiled Descriptions

       The  ncurses library searches for terminal descriptions in
       several places.  It uses only the first description found.
       The  library  has  a  compiled-in list of places to search
       which can be overridden by environment variables.   Before
       starting  to  search, ncurses eliminates duplicates in its
       search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO  is  set,  it  is
           interpreted  as the pathname of a directory containing
           the compiled description you  are  working  on.   Only
           that directory is searched.

       o   If  TERMINFO  is not set, ncurses will instead look in
           the directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled  descrip-
           tion.

       o   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is
           set, ncurses will interpret the contents of that vari-
           able  as  a  list  of  colon-separated directories (or
           database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable  begins
           or  ends  with a colon, or contains adacent colons) is
           interpreted as  the  system  location  /usr/share/ter-
           minfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a           list           of          directories
               (/usr/local/ncurses/share/terminfo:/usr/share/ter-
               minfo), and

           o   the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo
               (the compiled-in default).

Preparing Descriptions

       We now outline how to prepare descriptions  of  terminals.
       The  most  effective way to prepare a terminal description
       is by imitating the description of a similar  terminal  in
       terminfo  and  to  build up a description gradually, using
       partial descriptions with vi or some other screen-oriented
       program  to  check that they are correct.  Be aware that a
       very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the abil-
       ity  of  the  terminfo  file to describe it or bugs in the
       screen-handling code of the test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the  terminal
       manufacturer did not document it) a severe test is to edit
       a large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from  the
       middle  of  the screen, then hit the "u" key several times
       quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding is  usu-
       ally  needed.  A similar test can be used for insert char-
       acter.

Basic Capabilities

       The number of columns on each line  for  the  terminal  is
       given  by the cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is
       a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen is given  by
       the lines capability.  If the terminal wraps around to the
       beginning of the next line when it reaches the right  mar-
       gin, then it should have the am capability.  If the termi-
       nal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home
       position,  then this is given by the clear string capabil-
       ity.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing  a
       position  when  a character is struck over) then it should
       have the os capability.  If the  terminal  is  a  printing
       terminal,  with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.
       (os applies to storage scope terminals, such as  TEKTRONIX
       4010  series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If
       there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the
       current row, give this as cr.  (Normally this will be car-
       riage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  produce
       an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If  there is a code to move the cursor one position to the
       left (such as backspace) that capability should  be  given
       as  cub1.   Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and
       down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local
       cursor  motions  should not alter the text they pass over,
       for example, you would not normally use  "cuf1= "  because
       the space would erase the character moved over.

       A  very  important  point  here  is  that the local cursor
       motions encoded in terminfo are undefined at the left  and
       top  edges  of  a  CRT  terminal.   Programs  should never
       attempt to backspace around the left edge,  unless  bw  is
       given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In
       order to scroll text up, a program will go to  the  bottom
       left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner
       of the screen and sends the  ri  (reverse  index)  string.
       The  strings  ind  and  ri are undefined when not on their
       respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn
       and rin which have the same semantics as ind and ri except
       that they take one parameter, and scroll that many  lines.
       They  are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of
       the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks  at  the
       right  edge  of  the  screen when text is output, but this
       does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column.
       The  only local motion which is defined from the left edge
       is if bw is given, then a cub1 from  the  left  edge  will
       move  to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not
       given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for  draw-
       ing  a box around the edge of the screen, for example.  If
       the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins,  the
       terminfo  file  usually assumes that this is on; i.e., am.
       If the terminal has a command which  moves  to  the  first
       column  of the next line, that command can be given as nel
       (newline).  It does not matter if the command  clears  the
       remainder  of  the current line, so if the terminal has no
       cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working  nel
       out of one or both of them.

       These  capabilities  suffice  to  describe  hard-copy  and
       "glass-tty" terminals.  Thus  the  model  33  teletype  is
       described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

Parameterized Strings

       Cursor  addressing  and other strings requiring parameters
       in the terminal are described by  a  parameterized  string
       capability,  with  printf-like  escapes  such as %x in it.
       For example, to address the cursor, the cup capability  is
       given, using two parameters: the row and column to address
       to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to
       the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen
       memory.)  If  the  terminal  has  memory  relative  cursor
       addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism uses a stack and special % codes
       to manipulate it.  Typically a sequence will push  one  of
       the  parameters  onto  the stack and then print it in some
       format.  Print (e.g., "%d")  is  a  special  case.   Other
       operations,  including  "%t"  pop  their  operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are often
       necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

       %[[:]flags][width[.precision]][doxXs]
            as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":"
            to allow the next character to be a "-" flag,  avoid-
            ing interpreting "%-" as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

       %p[1-9]
            push i'th parameter

       %P[a-z]
            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[a-z]/
            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

       %P[A-Z]
            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[A-Z]
            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and  "dynamic"  are misleading.
            Historically, these are simply two different sets  of
            variables,  whose  values are not reset between calls
            to tparm.  However, that fact is  not  documented  in
            other  implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

       %{nn}
            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop()
            op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary   operations   (logical  and  bit  complement):
            push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms  an  if-then-else.   The  %e  elsepart  is
            optional.   Usually  the  %? expr part pushes a value
            onto the stack, and %t pops it from the stack,  test-
            ing  if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero (false),
            control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the struc-
            ture  of if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can
            be very complicated when written on one line.  The -f
            option  splits  the  string into lines with the parts
            indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in
       the  usual  order.   That  is,  to  get  x-5 one would use
       "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g variables  are  persistent  across
       escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12,
       needs to be sent \E&a12c03Y  padded  for  6  milliseconds.
       Note  that  the  order of the rows and columns is inverted
       here, and that the row and column are printed as two  dig-
       its.  Thus its cup capability is "cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent
       preceded by a ^T, with the row and column  simply  encoded
       in  binary,  "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which use "%c"
       need to be able to backspace the  cursor  (cub1),  and  to
       move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is
       necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n  ^D
       and  \r,  as  the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set  tty  modes  so
       that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This
       turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and col-
       umn  offset  by  a  blank  character,  thus  "cup=\E=%p1%'
       '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending "\E=", this  pushes  the
       first  parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a space (32),
       adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in  place  of  the
       two  previous  values) and outputs that value as a charac-
       ter.  Then the same is  done  for  the  second  parameter.
       More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

Cursor Motions

       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very
       upper left corner of screen) then this  can  be  given  as
       home;  similarly  a fast way of getting to the lower left-
       hand corner can be given as ll; this may involve going  up
       with  cuu1  from  the  home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can  make
       no  assumption about the effect of moving up from the home
       position.  Note that the home  position  is  the  same  as
       addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the screen,
       not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence  on  HP  terminals
       cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor address-
       ing, these can be given as single  parameter  capabilities
       hpa (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical posi-
       tion absolute).  Sometimes these are shorter than the more
       general  two  parameter  sequence (as with the hp2645) and
       can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right)
       these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single
       parameter  indicating  how many spaces to move.  These are
       primarily useful if the terminal does not have  cup,  such
       as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running
       a program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter
       and  exit this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup.  This
       arises, for example, from terminals like the Concept  with
       more  than  one  page of memory.  If the terminal has only
       memory relative cursor addressing and not screen  relative
       cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed
       into the terminal for cursor addressing to work  properly.
       This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets
       the command character to be the one used by terminfo.   If
       the  smcup  sequence  will not restore the screen after an
       rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

Area Clears

       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the
       end of the line, leaving the  cursor  where  it  is,  this
       should be given as el.  If the terminal can clear from the
       beginning of the line to the current  position  inclusive,
       leaving  the  cursor  where it is, this should be given as
       el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current  position
       to  the  end  of the display, then this should be given as
       ed.  Ed is only defined from the first column of  a  line.
       (Thus,  it can be simulated by a request to delete a large
       number of lines, if a true ed is not available.)

Insert/delete line and vertical motions

       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the  line
       where  the cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is
       done only from the first position of a line.   The  cursor
       must then appear on the newly blank line.  If the terminal
       can delete the line which the  cursor  is  on,  then  this
       should  be  given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of  il1  and
       dl1  which  take  a  single parameter and insert or delete
       that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the
       vt100)  the  command to set this can be described with the
       csr capability, which takes two parameters:  the  top  and
       bottom lines of the scrolling region.  The cursor position
       is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete  line
       using csr on a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save
       and restore cursor) commands may be  useful  for  ensuring
       that  your  synthesized insert/delete string does not move
       the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3x) library does  this
       synthesis   automatically,   so   you   need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to
       use  a  combination  of index with the memory-lock feature
       found on some terminals (like the HP-700/90 series,  which
       however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can
       also be done using ri or ind on many terminals  without  a
       true  insert/delete line, and is often faster even on ter-
       minals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set  if  each
       scrolling  window  is effectively a view port on a screen-
       sized canvas.  To  test  for  this  capability,  create  a
       scrolling  region in the middle of the screen, write some-
       thing to the bottom line, move the cursor to  the  top  of
       the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data
       scrolled off the bottom  of  the  region  by  the  ri  re-
       appears,  then scrolling is non-destructive.  System V and
       XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin  will  simu-
       late  destructive  scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is  true.   This  curses
       implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases
       after scrolling if ndstr is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part
       of  memory,  which all commands affect, it should be given
       as the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are
       the  starting  and ending lines in memory and the starting
       and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then  the
       da  capability  should  be given; if display memory can be
       retained below, then db should be given.   These  indicate
       that  deleting  a  line  or  scrolling may bring non-blank
       lines up from below or that scrolling  back  with  ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.

Insert/Delete Character

       There  are  two  basic kinds of intelligent terminals with
       respect to insert/delete character which can be  described
       using  terminfo.   The most common insert/delete character
       operations affect only the characters on the current  line
       and  shift  characters  off  the  end of the line rigidly.
       Other terminals, such as the Concept 100  and  the  Perkin
       Elmer  Owl,  make  a distinction between typed and untyped
       blanks on the screen, shifting upon an  insert  or  delete
       only  to  an  untyped  blank on the screen which is either
       eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by  clear-
       ing  the  screen  and then typing text separated by cursor
       motions.  Type "abc    def"  using  local  cursor  motions
       (not  spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".  Then posi-
       tion the cursor before the "abc" and put the  terminal  in
       insert  mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the
       line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the  end,
       then your terminal does not distinguish between blanks and
       untyped positions.  If the "abc" shifts over to the  "def"
       which  then  move  together  around the end of the current
       line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  second
       type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which
       stands for "insert null".

       While these are two  logically  separate  attributes  (one
       line  versus multi-line insert mode, and special treatment
       of untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose  insert
       mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo  can describe both terminals which have an insert
       mode, and terminals which send a simple sequence to open a
       blank  position  on  the  current  line.  Give as smir the
       sequence to get  into  insert  mode.   Give  as  rmir  the
       sequence  to  leave  insert  mode.   Now  give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before sending the charac-
       ter  to  be  inserted.   Most terminals with a true insert
       mode will not give ich1; terminals which send  a  sequence
       to open a screen position should give it here.

       If  your terminal has both, insert mode is usually prefer-
       able to ich1.   Technically,  you  should  not  give  both
       unless  the  terminal actually requires both to be used in
       combination.  Accordingly,  some  non-curses  applications
       get  confused  if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement is
       now rare; most ich sequences do not require previous smir,
       and most smir insert modes do not require ich1 before each
       character.   Therefore,  the  new  curses actually assumes
       this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1  as
       appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old  enough  to
       need both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of
       milliseconds in ip (a string option).  Any other  sequence
       which  may  need  to  be  sent after an insert of a single
       character may also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs
       both to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special code
       to precede each inserted character,  then  both  smir/rmir
       and  ich1  can  be  given, and both will be used.  The ich
       capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects
       of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not
       in insert mode, give this as a number of milliseconds pad-
       ding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to  move  around while in
       insert mode to delete characters on the same  line  (e.g.,
       if  there is a tab after the insertion position).  If your
       terminal allows motion while in insert mode you  can  give
       the  capability  mir  to  speed up inserting in this case.
       Omitting mir  will  affect  only  speed.   Some  terminals
       (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way
       their insert mode works.

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a  single  charac-
       ter,  dch  with  one parameter, n, to delete n characters,
       and delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and  exit
       delete  mode  (any mode the terminal needs to be placed in
       for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to  outputting
       n  blanks  without  moving the cursor) can be given as ech
       with one parameter.

Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

       If  your  terminal  has  one  or  more  kinds  of  display
       attributes,  these  can be represented in a number of dif-
       ferent ways.  You should choose one display form as stand-
       out mode, representing a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-
       eyes, format for highlighting  error  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If you have a choice, reverse video
       plus half-bright is good, or reverse  video  alone.)   The
       sequences  to  enter  and  exit standout mode are given as
       smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to  change  into
       or  out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spa-
       ces on the screen, as the TVI 912  and  Teleray  1061  do,
       then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes  to  begin  underlining  and  end underlining can be
       given as smul and rmul respectively.  If the terminal  has
       a  code  to  underline  the current character and move the
       cursor one space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime,
       this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter  various highlighting modes
       include blink (blinking) bold (bold or extra  bright)  dim
       (dim  or  half-bright)  invis (blanking or invisible text)
       prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0  (turn  off  all
       attribute  modes)  smacs  (enter  alternate  character set
       mode) and  rmacs  (exit  alternate  character  set  mode).
       Turning  on  any of these modes singly may or may not turn
       off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set  arbitrary  combinations  of
       modes,  this should be given as sgr (set attributes), tak-
       ing 9 parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or  nonzero,
       as the corresponding attribute is on or off.  The 9 param-
       eters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,  blink,
       dim,  bold,  blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not
       all modes need be supported by sgr, only those  for  which
       corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

        tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

        none                 none             \E[0m
        p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
        p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
        p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
        p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
        p5                   dim              not available
        p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
        p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
        p8                   protect          not used
        p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We  begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing
       modes, since there is no quick way  to  determine  whether
       they are active.  Standout is set up to be the combination
       of reverse and bold.  The vt220  terminal  has  a  protect
       mode,  though  it  is  not commonly used in sgr because it
       protects characters on the screen  from  the  host's  era-
       sures.   The  altcharset mode also is different in that it
       is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or  on.
       If  all  modes  are  turned  on, the resulting sequence is
       \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.   For  exam-
       ple,  ;7  is output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is,
       if either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with  their  depen-
       dencies yields

      sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

      \E[0                 always              \E[0
      ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
      ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
      ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
      ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
      ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
      m                    always              m
      ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

           sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p4%t;5%;
               %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

       Remember  that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify
       sgr0.  Also, some implementations rely on sgr being  given
       if  sgr0  is, Not all terminfo entries necessarily have an
       sgr string, however.  Many terminfo  entries  are  derived
       from  termcap  entries which have no sgr string.  The only
       drawback to adding an sgr  string  is  that  termcap  also
       assumes  that  sgr0  does not exit alternate character set
       mode.

       Terminals with the "magic  cookie"  glitch  (xmc)  deposit
       special   "cookies"   when   they   receive   mode-setting
       sequences, which affect the display algorithm rather  than
       having  extra  bits  for  each character.  Some terminals,
       such as the HP 2621,  automatically  leave  standout  mode
       when  they  move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.
       Programs using standout mode  should  exit  standout  mode
       before  moving the cursor or sending a newline, unless the
       msgr capability, asserting that it  is  safe  to  move  in
       standout mode, is present.

       If  the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indi-
       cate an error quietly (a bell replacement) then  this  can
       be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If  the  cursor  needs to be made more visible than normal
       when it is not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a
       non-blinking  underline  into  an  easier to find block or
       blinking underline) give this sequence as cvvis.  If there
       is  a  way  to  make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which
       undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters
       (with no special codes needed) even  though  it  does  not
       overstrike,  then you should give the capability ul.  If a
       character overstriking another leaves both  characters  on
       the screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes are
       erasable with a blank, then this should  be  indicated  by
       giving eo.

Keypad and Function Keys

       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the
       keys are pressed, this information  can  be  given.   Note
       that it is not possible to handle terminals where the key-
       pad only works in local (this applies, for example, to the
       unshifted  HP  2621  keys).   If  the keypad can be set to
       transmit or not transmit, give these  codes  as  smkx  and
       rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The  codes  sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow,
       down arrow, and home keys can be given  as  kcub1,  kcuf1,
       kcuu1,  kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there are func-
       tion keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the  codes  they  send
       can  be  given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have
       labels other than the default f0 through f10,  the  labels
       can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be
       given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3  by  3  array  of  keys
       including  the four arrow keys, the other five keys can be
       given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are use-
       ful  when  the  effects  of  a  3 by 3 directional pad are
       needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be  given  as  pfkey,
       pfloc,  and pfx.  A string to program screen labels should
       be specified as pln.  Each  of  these  strings  takes  two
       parameters:  the function key number to program (from 0 to
       10) and the string to program it with.  Function key  num-
       bers  out  of  this  range may program undefined keys in a
       terminal dependent manner.   The  difference  between  the
       capabilities  is  that pfkey causes pressing the given key
       to be the same as the user typing the given string;  pfloc
       causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local;
       and pfx causes the string to be transmitted  to  the  com-
       puter.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of pro-
       grammable screen labels and their width  and  height.   If
       there  are  commands  to  turn the labels on and off, give
       them in smln and rmln.  smln is normally output after  one
       or more pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes
       visible.

Tabs and Initialization

       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to  advance
       to  the  next tab stop can be given as ht (usually control
       I).  A "back-tab" command which moves leftward to the pre-
       ceding  tab  stop  can be given as cbt.  By convention, if
       the teletype modes indicate that tabs are  being  expanded
       by  the  computer  rather than being sent to the terminal,
       programs should not  use  ht  or  cbt  even  if  they  are
       present,  since  the user may not have the tab stops prop-
       erly set.  If the terminal has  hardware  tabs  which  are
       initially  set every n spaces when the terminal is powered
       up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the  number
       of  spaces  the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by
       the tset command to determine whether to set the mode  for
       hardware  tab expansion, and whether to set the tab stops.
       If the terminal has tab stops that can be  saved  in  non-
       volatile  memory, the terminfo description can assume that
       they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3,  initializa-
       tion  strings  for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a
       program to be run to initialize the terminal, and if,  the
       name  of  a  file  containing long initialization strings.
       These strings are expected to set the terminal into  modes
       consistent  with  the  rest  of  the terminfo description.
       They are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option
       of  the  tput  program,  each time the user logs in.  They
       will be printed in the following order:

              run the program
                     iprog

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file
                     if

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with  is2.   Special  terminal
       modes can be set up without duplicating strings by putting
       the common sequences in is2 and special cases in  is1  and
       is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally
       unknown state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analo-
       gous  to  is1  ,  is2  ,  if  and is3 respectively.  These
       strings are output by the reset  program,  which  is  used
       when  the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  pro-
       duce  annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary
       when logging in.  For example,  the  command  to  set  the
       vt100  into  80-column mode would normally be part of is2,
       but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is  not
       normally  needed  since the terminal is usually already in
       80 column mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in
       the  same  order  as  the  init  program, using rs1, etc.,
       instead of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset
       capability  strings  are  missing, the reset program falls
       back  upon  the  corresponding  initialization  capability
       string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can
       be given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set  a  tab
       stop  in the current column of every row).  If a more com-
       plex sequence is needed  to  set  the  tabs  than  can  be
       described  by  this,  the sequence can be placed in is2 or
       if.

Delays and Padding

       Many older and slower  terminals  do  not  support  either
       XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, including hard copy terminals
       and some very archaic CRTs (including,  for  example,  DEC
       VT100s).   These may require padding characters after cer-
       tain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control
       (that  is, it automatically emits ^S back to the host when
       its input buffers are close to full), set xon.  This capa-
       bility  suppresses  the emission of padding.  You can also
       set it for memory-mapped console devices effectively  that
       do  not  have  a  speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make  better  deci-
       sions about relative costs, but actual pad characters will
       not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is  suppressed
       at  baud rates below the value of pb.  If the entry has no
       padding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or  not
       is completely controlled by xon.

       If  the terminal requires other than a null (zero) charac-
       ter as a pad, then this can be given  as  pad.   Only  the
       first character of the pad string is used.

Status Lines

       Some  terminals  have  an extra "status line" which is not
       normally used by software (and thus  not  counted  in  the
       terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest  case  is  a  status  line  which is cursor-
       addressable but not part of the main scrolling  region  on
       the  screen;  the  Heathkit  H19 has a status line of this
       kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with  a  23-line  scrolling
       region  set up on initialization.  This situation is indi-
       cated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to
       access  the  status  line.   These  may  be expressed as a
       string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to
       a  given zero-origin column on the status line.  The capa-
       bility fsl must return to the main-screen cursor positions
       before  the  last  tsl.   You may need to embed the string
       values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in  tsl
       and fsl to accomplish this.

       The  status  line is normally assumed to be the same width
       as the width of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you  can
       specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

       A  command to erase or blank the status line may be speci-
       fied as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability  eslok  specifies   that   escape
       sequences, tabs, etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses  implementation does not yet use any of these
       capabilities.  They are documented here in case they  ever
       become important.

Line Graphics

       Many  terminals  have  alternate character sets useful for
       forms-drawing.  Terminfo and curses build in  support  for
       the  drawing  characters supported by the VT100, with some
       characters from the AT&T  4410v1  added.   This  alternate
       character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       Glyph                       ACS           Ascii     VT100
       Name                        Name          Default   Name
       UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING  f         }
       arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW    v         .
       arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW    <         ,
       arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW    >         +
       arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW    ^         -
       board of squares            ACS_BOARD     #         h
       bullet                      ACS_BULLET    o         ~
       checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD   :         a
       degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE    \         f
       diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND   +         `
       greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL    >         z
       greek pi                    ACS_PI        *         {
       horizontal line             ACS_HLINE     -         q
       lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN   #         i
       large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS      +         n
       less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL    <         y
       lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER  +         m
       lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER  +         j
       not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL    !         |
       plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS   #         g
       scan line 1                 ACS_S1        ~         o
       scan line 3                 ACS_S3        -         p
       scan line 7                 ACS_S7        -         r
       scan line 9                 ACS_S9        _         s
       solid square block          ACS_BLOCK     #         0
       tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE      +         w
       tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE      +         u
       tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE      +         t
       tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE      +         v
       upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER  +         l
       upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER  +         k
       vertical line               ACS_VLINE     |         x

       The  best  way to define a new device's graphics set is to
       add a column to a copy of this table  for  your  terminal,
       giving   the   character   which   (when  emitted  between
       smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered as the  correspond-
       ing  graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal char-
       acter pairs right to left in sequence;  these  become  the
       ACSC string.

Color Handling

       Most  color  terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-
       like".  Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set  of
       N  colors  (where N usually 8), and can set character-cell
       foreground and background characters independently, mixing
       them  into  N * N  color-pairs.  On HP-like terminals, the
       use must set each color pair up separately (foreground and
       background  are  not  independently  settable).   Up  to M
       color-pairs may be  set  up  from  2*M  different  colors.
       ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color
       method.  The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify
       the  maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be
       displayed simultaneously.  The op (original  pair)  string
       resets  foreground  and background colors to their default
       values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all  colors
       or  color-pairs  to their default values for the terminal.
       Some terminals  (including  many  PC  terminal  emulators)
       erase  screen  areas  with  the  current  background color
       rather than the power-up default background; these  should
       have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change the current foreground or background color on a
       Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set  ANSI  foreground)
       and  setab  (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground)
       and setb (set background).  These take one parameter,  the
       color  number.   The  SVr4  documentation  describes  only
       setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says  that  "If  the  terminal
       supports ANSI escape sequences to set background and fore-
       ground, they should be coded as setaf and  setab,  respec-
       tively.   If  the terminal supports other escape sequences
       to set background and foreground, they should be coded  as
       setf  and  setb, respectively.  The vidputs() function and
       the refresh functions use setaf  and  setab  if  they  are
       defined."

       The  setaf/setab  and setf/setb capabilities take a single
       numeric argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab
       are  portably defined as follows (the middle column is the
       symbolic #define available in the header for the curses or
       ncurses  libraries).  The terminal hardware is free to map
       these as it likes, but  the  RGB  values  indicate  normal
       locations in color space.

             Color       #define       Value       RGB
             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
             red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
             blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The  argument  values of setf/setb historically correspond
       to a different mapping, i.e.,

             Color       #define       Value       RGB
             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
             blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
             red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capa-
       bilities;  otherwise  red/blue will be interchanged on the
       display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a  color-pair  number
       parameter to set which color pair is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal, the capability ccc may be
       present to indicate that colors can be modified.   If  so,
       the initc capability will take a color number (0 to colors
       - 1)and three more parameters which  describe  the  color.
       These three parameters default to being interpreted as RGB
       (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability  hls
       is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Satu-
       ration) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give  a  capability  for
       changing  a  color-pair value.  It will take seven parame-
       ters; a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs -  1),  and  two
       triples  describing  first  background and then foreground
       colors.  These parameters must be (Red,  Green,  Blue)  or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some  color terminals, colors collide with highlights.
       You can register these collisions with the ncv capability.
       This  is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when col-
       ors are enabled.  The correspondence with  the  attributes
       understood by curses is as follows:

          Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
          A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
          A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
          A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
          A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
          A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
          A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
          A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
          A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
          A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
          A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
          A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
          A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
          A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
          A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
          A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
          A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For  example,  on  many  IBM  PC  consoles,  the underline
       attribute collides with the foreground color blue  and  is
       not  available  in  color  mode.  These should have an ncv
       capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses  recognizes  it
       and optimizes the output in favor of colors.

Miscellaneous

       If  the terminal requires other than a null (zero) charac-
       ter as a pad, then this can be given  as  pad.   Only  the
       first  character of the pad string is used.  If the termi-
       nal does not have a pad character, specify npc.  Note that
       ncurses  implements  the  termcap-compatible  PC variable;
       though the application may set  this  value  to  something
       other  than  a  null,  ncurses will test npc first and use
       napms if the terminal has no pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this  can
       be  indicated  with  hu  (half-line  up) and hd (half-line
       down).  This is primarily useful for superscripts and sub-
       scripts  on  hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal
       can eject to the next page (form feed), give  this  as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there is a command to repeat a given character a given
       number of times (to save time transmitting a large  number
       of  identical  characters)  this can be indicated with the
       parameterized string rep.   The  first  parameter  is  the
       character  to  be repeated and the second is the number of
       times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)  is
       the same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If  the terminal has a settable command character, such as
       the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be indicated with  cmdch.   A
       prototype command character is chosen which is used in all
       capabilities.  This character is given in the cmdch  capa-
       bility  to  identify it.  The following convention is sup-
       ported on some UNIX systems:  The  environment  is  to  be
       searched  for a CC variable, and if found, all occurrences
       of the prototype character are replaced with the character
       in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do  not represent a specific
       kind of known terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and
       network,  should  include  the  gn (generic) capability so
       that programs can complain that they do not  know  how  to
       talk  to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply to
       virtual  terminal  descriptions  for  which   the   escape
       sequences are known.)

       If  the  terminal  has  a "meta key" which acts as a shift
       key, setting the 8th bit  of  any  character  transmitted,
       this  fact  can be indicated with km.  Otherwise, software
       will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it will usually
       be  cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit  on
       the  screen  at once, the number of lines of memory can be
       indicated with lm.  A value of  lm#0  indicates  that  the
       number of lines is not fixed, but that there is still more
       memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX vir-
       tual  terminal  protocol, the terminal number can be given
       as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer con-
       nected to the terminal can be given as mc0: print the con-
       tents of the screen, mc4: turn off the printer,  and  mc5:
       turn  on  the  printer.   When the printer is on, all text
       sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.   It  is
       undefined whether the text is also displayed on the termi-
       nal screen when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes
       one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many char-
       acters as the value  of  the  parameter,  then  turns  the
       printer  off.   The  parameter should not exceed 255.  All
       text,  including  mc4,  is  transparently  passed  to  the
       printer while an mc5p is in effect.

Glitches and Braindamage

       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to
       be displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am
       wrap, such as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to  get  rid of standout (instead of
       merely writing normal text on top of it),  xhp  should  be
       given.

       Teleray  terminals,  where  tabs turn all characters moved
       over to blanks, should  indicate  xt  (destructive  tabs).
       Note:    the    variable    indicating    this    is   now
       "dest_tabs_magic_smso"; in older  versions,  it  was  tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is
       not possible to position the cursor on  top  of  a  "magic
       cookie",  that to erase standout mode it is instead neces-
       sary to use delete and insert line.  The ncurses implemen-
       tation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly trans-
       mit the escape or control C characters, has xsb,  indicat-
       ing  that the f1 key is used for escape and f2 for control
       C.  (Only certain Superbees have this  problem,  depending
       on  the  ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions, this
       capability  was  called  "beehive_glitch";   it   is   now
       "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other  specific  terminal  problems  may  be  corrected by
       adding more capabilities of the form xx.

Similar Terminals

       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant)
       can  be  defined  as  being just like the other (the base)
       with certain exceptions.  In the definition of  the  vari-
       ant,  the string capability use can be given with the name
       of the base terminal.  The capabilities given  before  use
       override  those  in  the base type named by use.  If there
       are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in  reverse
       order.   That is, the rightmost use reference is processed
       first, then the one to its left, and so forth.   Capabili-
       ties  given explicitly in the entry override those brought
       in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of
       the  use  reference that imports it, where xx is the capa-
       bility.  For example, the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not  have  the  smkx  or  rmkx
       capabilities,  and hence does not turn on the function key
       labels when in visual mode.  This is useful for  different
       modes for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

Pitfalls of Long Entries

       Long  terminfo  entries  are  unlikely to be a problem; to
       date, no entry has even  approached  terminfo's  4096-byte
       string-table maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap transla-
       tions are much more strictly limited (to 1023 bytes), thus
       termcap  translations  of  long terminfo entries can cause
       problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions  of  tgetent()
       instruct  the  user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the
       termcap entry.  The  entry  gets  null-terminated  by  the
       termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe length for
       a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what  the
       application  and  the termcap library being used does, and
       where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent()
       is searching for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if
       they find an entry that's longer than 1023  bytes;  others
       do  not;  others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some
       application programs allocate more than the recommended 1K
       for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with
       it: before "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc"
       is  the  capability that tacks on another termcap entry to
       the end of the current one, to add  on  its  capabilities.
       If  a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability, then
       of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length  is  the  most  important
       one,  because it affects more than just users of that par-
       ticular terminal.  This is the length of the entry  as  it
       exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-newline pairs,
       which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries  strip  off  the final newline, too (GNU termcap
       does not).  Now suppose:

       o   a termcap entry before expansion  is  more  than  1023
           bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and  the  termcap  library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1
           and GNU) reads the whole entry  into  the  buffer,  no
           matter  what  its length, to see if it is the entry it
           wants,

       o   and tgetent() is searching for a  terminal  type  that
           either  is the long entry, appears in the termcap file
           after the long entry, or does not appear in  the  file
           at  all  (so  that  tgetent()  has to search the whole
           termcap file).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps  its  stack,
       and  probably core dump the program.  Programs like telnet
       are particularly vulnerable;  modern  telnets  pass  along
       values  like the terminal type automatically.  The results
       are almost as undesirable with  a  termcap  library,  like
       SunOS  4.1.3  and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages
       when it reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a  termcap
       library  truncates  long  entries,  like  OSF/1 3.0, it is
       immune to dying here but will return  incorrect  data  for
       the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect
       to the above, but only for people who actually set TERM to
       that  terminal type, since tgetent() only does "tc" expan-
       sion once it is found the terminal  type  it  was  looking
       for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes
       can cause, on various combinations  of  termcap  libraries
       and  applications,  a  core  dump,  warnings, or incorrect
       operation.  If it is too long even before "tc"  expansion,
       it will have this effect even for users of some other ter-
       minal types and users whose TERM variable does not have  a
       termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses imple-
       mentation of tic(1m) issues warning messages when the pre-
       tc  length  of  a termcap translation is too long.  The -c
       (check) option also checks resolved (after  tc  expansion)
       lengths.

Binary Compatibility

       It  is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo
       entries between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem  is
       that  there  are  at least two versions of terminfo (under
       HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after
       SVr1,  and have added extension capabilities to the string
       table that (in the binary format) collide  with  System  V
       and XSI Curses extensions.


EXTENSIONS

       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses  implementations,  and  all  previous  to
       SVr4,  do not interpret the %A and %O operators in parame-
       ter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether  msgr  licenses  movement
       while  in an alternate-character-set mode (such modes may,
       among other things, map CR and NL to  characters  that  do
       not  trigger  local  motions).  The ncurses implementation
       ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises  the  possi-
       bility  that  an  XPG4  implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for  ncurses
       to have msgr turned off.

       The  ncurses  library handles insert-character and insert-
       character modes in a slightly non-standard way to get bet-
       ter  update  efficiency.   See the Insert/Delete Character
       subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock   and   dis-
       play_clock  are  not  documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses
       standard.  They are deduced from the documentation for the
       AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning  the kmous capability.  The ncurses
       wants to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use  by  terminals
       and  emulators  like  xterm that can return mouse-tracking
       information in the keyboard-input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applica-
       tions  must  assume  that  numeric capabilities are signed
       16-bit values.  This  includes  the  no_color_video  (ncv)
       capability.   The  32768  mask value used for italics with
       ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled  ncv.   If
       italics  should  work with colors, then the ncv value must
       be specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses  support
       different  subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some
       cases) different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accu-
       rate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabili-
       ties.

       SGI --  Supports  the  SVr4  set,  adds  one  undocumented
       extended string capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1,  Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of ter-
       minfo capabilities.  The booleans end with  xon_xoff;  the
       numerics  with  width_status_line;  and  the  strings with
       prtr_non.

       HP/UX -- Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]
       numerics num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus func-
       tion keys 11 through 63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,  and
       label_off, plus some incompatible extensions in the string
       table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset,  plus  function  keys  11
       through  63,  plus  a  number of incompatible string table
       extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


FILES

       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files     containing     terminal
                                descriptions


SEE ALSO

       tic(1m),   infocmp(1m),  curses(3x),  printf(3),  term(5).
       term_variables(3x).


AUTHORS

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric  S.  Raymond,  Thomas  E.  Dickey.
       Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.



                                                            terminfo(5)

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