ded - directory editor


       ded [options] [file-specifications]


       The  directory editor provides the user with a full-screen interface to
       POSIX files and directories.  Multiple lists of files may be displayed,
       sorted  by  various  fields,  and  used  in  built-in or ordinary shell
       commands.  Navigation among directories is either hierarchical,  or  by
       means of a directory tree screen.


       Ded  provides  you  with  a vi-like interface to files and directories.
       Two types of displays are provided:

       o   file list.  One or more files are displayed,  one  per  line.   The
           current  working  directory is shown at the top of the screen.  The
           bottom of the screen (marked with a dividing line) is a  work  area
           in which shell commands may be issued, and their results displayed.
           You may move the cursor forward or backward through  a  file  list,
           sort the list, and apply various commands to the files shown.

       o   directory  tree.   One or more lines are shown, each representing a
           directory (or symbolic link to a  directory).   You  may  move  the
           cursor  about  the directory tree both by arrow keys, as well as by
           issuing commands to search for particular names.

       Ded manages multiple file lists; commands are provided for opening  new
       lists from either a file list or from the directory tree.  You may page
       between file lists, or back and forth to the directory tree.

       Within a file list, you may mark groups of files  on  which  subsequent
       commands  will  operate.  Both built-in and shell commands operate upon
       the marked files, and may be repeated for different files.

       Ded uses the curses (3) screen management package and runs in  a  POSIX


       Most command-line options initialize the state for display-manipulation
       commands.  They include:

       -a  show "." and ".." entries in each file list (see "&" toggle).

       -b  use the box-character set for  displaying  the  directory-tree  and
           workspace ruler.

           read  user  commands  from  the  specified  file.  The commands are
           assumed to be in the same format as the log-file generated with the
           "-l" option.  Subprocesses do not (currently) inherit this option.

       -D  force  date-display to long format.  Allows editing of modification
           times using the "T" command.

       -d  enable debug trace.

           If the standard output is a terminal, debug messages are written to
           the  standard  output.  Otherwise, they are written to the standard

           Repeating the  flag  changes  the  level.   Setting  the  DED_DEBUG
           environment  to  a  nonzero integer will also enable a debug-trace,
           with the corresponding level.  The levels are cumulative:

           1   ded prints the name of each file as it gets its properties, and
               pauses after reading the set of files.

           2   In addition, ded prints the data read from a pipe.

           3   On exit due to error, ded will dump core.

       -e  modify the interpretation of the "e" command to spawn a new process
           of ded when editing a directory.

       -G  toggle  user/group  display   field   (initially   displays   user-

       -I  toggle  inode/links  display  field  (initially  displays number of
           links for each file).

       -i  invert colors used for filenames.   This  helps  with  contrast  on
           white  backgrounds,  particularly with older curses implementations
           which do not support default-colors.

           log user commands (and ded messages) to the  specified  file.   Ded
           subprocesses invoked with the "e" command inherit this option.

       -m  disable mouse events.

       -n  disable prompt on ded quit command.

       -P  toggle  file-protection  display  field  (initially  displays  file
           protection in ls-style).

       -p  print full pathnames of tagged files on exit.

       -O  show rcs file-lock owner.

           provide initial reverse-sort by key

       -S  toggle file size (in blocks) display field (normally displays  only
           the size in bytes).

           provide initial sort by key

       -T  toggle date-display to long format.

           read  the directory tree file ".ftree" from the specified directory
           path.  This option is inherited in subsequent processes of ded.

       -x  toggle BRE (basic regular expressions) versus ERE (extended regular

       -V  show rcs/sccs version.

       -Z  toggle rcs/sccs data display (normally inactive).

       -z  toggle rcs/sccs data display


       Most  ded  commands  are  single-character,  like  those  of vi.  Where
       appropriate, ded commands may be prefixed with a repeat  count.   (When
       not specified, the repeat count is always one).

Invoking DED

       When  you invoke ded, it scans its argument list.  Options must precede
       file specifications.  Arguments which do not begin with "-" are treated
       as  file  specifications.   File specification arguments may begin with
       "~" (tilde) to denote C-shell style home-directory specifications.

       You may redirect ded's standard-input to a list of  file-specifications
       (e.g., the output of find).

       If only one file specification is given, ded checks to see if it is the
       name of a directory.  If so, ded changes its working directory to that,
       and  shows  all  files which reside in the directory.  If any files are
       found, ded builds a display showing the files which it found, in an ls-
       like  scrollable  display.   If no arguments are given, ded assumes the
       current working directory, ".".

       If more than one file specification argument is given, ded changes  its
       working  directory  to  the  most  common pathname among the arguments.
       Note that if you give ded a wildcard argument such as  "d*",  then  the
       shell performs wildcard expansion, not ded.

       Items  from  the  argument  list  which are not found are not displayed
       (though they are retained in the argument list for  subsequent  rescans
       with  the  "R"  command).   Arguments may be given in absolute or path-
       relative  names  (i.e.,  beginning  with  "/"  or  some  sort  of  ".."

Exiting From DED

       To  exit from ded, you must be in the file list display.  If you are in
       the directory tree, typing "q" (for quit) will release the current file
       list  and  move  to  the  next  file  list  (if any).  Typing "Q" moves
       backward. When only one file list is left, ded will toggle back to  the
       file  list  display.  If there are a lot of file lists, it is faster to
       toggle back directly with "D".  (A repeat count may be applied  to  the
       directory tree quit-command).

       To exit from ded's file list display, type "q" (for quit).  If you have
       entered any other file lists (or a subprocess  of  ded),  you  will  be
       prompted  to ensure that you really intend to quit the current process.
       (If you specified the "-n" option  on  invoking  ded,  this  prompt  is

Interrupting DED

       You  may  also  forcibly  exit  from ded by typing your terminal's quit
       character.  This causes ded to exit without updating the ".ftree"  file
       (the directory-tree database).

       Some  of  ded's  commands  may  take  a long while to execute.  You may
       interrupt these commands by typing your terminal's interrupt character:

       o   The  directory-tree  "R"  command  may   be   interrupted   between
           individual files in the directory-scan.

       o   inline  changes  which  propagate to a tagged group of files (i.e.,
           the "p", "u", "g" or  "="  commands)  may  be  interrupted  between
           individual files in the group.

       o   the "t" type-file command.

Cursor Movement and Scrolling

       Cursor  movement  in  ded  is  styled after vi (i.e., the h, j, k and l
       keys).  However, since there are two types of displays, there are  some

       o   In file list displays, you may normally move the cursor only up and
           down.  This frees the left/right keys for other uses.  As you  move
           the  cursor  up  and  down  in  the display, it stays in the column
           immediately before the file names.  The left-arrow and  right-arrow
           keys scroll the screen left and right, respectively.

       o   Movement  in  the  directory tree is two-dimensional.  You may move
           the cursor left or right (up or down levels of the directory  tree)
           or  up  or down (to different directory names).  The screen display
           of the directory tree has markers (vertical bars or dashes) showing
           where  you  are  allowed  to  put the cursor.  Vertical movement is
           normally within items at the same directory level.   You  may  move
           from  one  line to another irregardless of level by the "J" and "K"

       Single-character cursor movement commands are:

       h   (directory): same as left-arrow.

       k   move cursor up count entries. (also: backspace, up-arrow).

       j   move cursor down count entries. (also: return, down-arrow).

       l   (directory): same as right-arrow.

       f   scroll forward count screen(s).

       b   scroll backward count screen(s).

           (file list): scroll left count/4 screen(s).
           (directory): move up count directory level(s).

           (file list): scroll right count/4 screens.
           (directory): move down count directory  level(s).   The  cursor  is
           limited by the rightmost name on the current line.

       J   (directory): move down count lines(s).

       K   (directory): move up count line(s).

       H   moves cursor to the first entry on screen.

       M   moves cursor to the middle of screen.

       L   moves cursor to the last entry on screen.

       ^   repositions  the  screen  with  current  line  at  the top.  If the
           current line is already at the top, ded toggles, putting it at  the
           bottom of the screen.

       Within  either the file list or directory tree displays, you may scroll
       to different items in the ring of file lists.  Within a file list,  the
       ring-scrolling  pages  to  a  different  file list display.  Within the
       directory tree, the ring-scrolling simply moves the cursor (and changes
       the context marker) to the specified file list.

       Ring-scrolling commands are:

       F   scroll forward (through the ring of file lists) count entries.

       B   scroll backward (through the ring of file lists) count entries.

Search Commands

       You  may  move  the  cursor  by searching for a particular string.  The
       following search commands are provided a la vi:

       /   Ded will prompt you for a regular expression.  If you give it  one,
           it will search forward (with wrap-around) for it.  A return without
           text will cancel the search.

       ?   Ded prompts you for a target and  searches  backwards  (with  wrap-
           around) for it.

       n   continue previous search (in the prevailing direction).

       N   continue the previous search, but in the reverse direction.

       Ded  maintains  a  separate  search  context  for the file list and the
       directory  tree  display.   That  is,  the   targets   are   maintained
       separately.   Searches  in  the  directory  tree do not include the "/"
       marks which separate path names; you  may  search  only  for  the  leaf


       You may use the following file-list commands to alter the format of the
       display, to refresh it, or to re-stat specific lines.  Several commands
       are provided for toggling the display format:

       &   toggles display showing "." and ".." entries in each file list.

           toggles  a  status  display in the header which shows the number of
           files tagged and their total size (in blocks).   Type  "2CTL/G"  to
           show the total size in bytes.

       @   toggle  the  display  of symbolic links.  When active, ded displays
           the mode, owner and group of the target of the  link,  rather  than
           the link itself.  To make this simple to see, ded displays the mode
           in uppercase.  If you apply an inline command (i.e.,  "p",  "u"  or
           "g")  to  a  tagged  group  containing  a  symbolic  link, ded will
           automatically toggle the display to display the targets rather than
           the links.

       C   toggle  date-field  to  display.   POSIX maintains three file dates
           (changed, modified and accessed).  The current state of this toggle
           is shown in the screen heading (e.g, "[mtime]").

       G   toggle  user/group display field.  Type "2G" to show user and group
           names at the same time.

       I   toggle inode/links display field.  Type  "2I"  to  show  inode  and
           device code at the same time.

       P   toggle  file protection-mode (octal/normal) display field.  This is
           useful  because  occasionally  the  POSIX  protection  display   is
           ambiguous.   Type "2P" to show the user/group field's numeric value
           as well.

       S   toggle the display of file size between  bytes  and  blocks.   Type
           "2S" to show both fields at one time.

       T   toggles  the  display  of  file-dates,  or  allows  you to edit the
           modification time if the "-D" option was given.

           Normally ded displays the file-dates in a compact form based on the
           relative  dates.   The  long form shows all information returned by
           ctime (2).  Type "2T" to show a number which represents the age  of
           the  files  in days (and fractions thereof).  Type "3T" to show the
           file timestamp in seconds, e.g., since 1 Janaury 1970.

           See the section Built-in Operations on Groups of Files for  details
           of editing the modification time.

       X   toggles  the  screen between one and two viewports.  You may adjust
           the size of these viewports with the "A" and "a" commands.  The two
           viewports  share  the same scrolling sense, but have an independent
           notion of the current file.

       Other commands (which do not simply toggle between different  displays)

       tab moves the cursor to the other viewport.

       A   move workspace marker up count line(s).

       a   move workspace marker down count line(s).

           causes ded to prompt you for a regular expression (see ex(1)) which
           will control the set of files subsequently  shown  in  the  current
           file-list.   Ded  then rescans the current directory, adjusting the

       R   re-scan argument list (refresh).  This clears  file  grouping,  re-
           reads  all  of  the directories specified in the argument list, re-
           sorts and repaints the screen.  The cursor is moved  to  the  first
           file in the list.  (If nothing is found, ded will exit).

       Directory  names  which  are  encountered  in the scan are added to the
       directory-tree.  If the "@" toggle is set (see above),  symbolic  links
       which resolve to actual directories are also added.

       W   re-stat entries in the current screen.  If a repeat count is given,
           this  command  is  repeated  at  3-second   intervals   (or   until

       w   refresh (i.e., repaint) the window.

       l   re-stat  the current entry, as well as files which are grouped.  If
           a repeat count is given,  this  command  is  repeated  at  3-second
           intervals (or until interrupted).

           clear  workspace window.  This command is particularly useful after
           executing a shell command, since curses has no notion  of  what  is
           shown in the workspace.

           causes  a  copy  of  your  current screen (obtained from the curses
           window-state)  to  be  appended  to  the  file  "ded.log"  in  your
           process's home directory.

Sorting the Display

       You  may  issue commands for sorting the file-list.  The cursor remains
       positioned at the same file after  a  sort.   (The  directory  tree  is
       always sorted alphabetically).

           reverse-sort entries.

           sort  entries in the "normal" order (dates and other numeric fields
           in descending order, names in ascending order).

       The key suffix denotes the fields which are compared, and are always  a
       single character:

       @   sort by symbolic-link target-names

       .   sort, using "." characters as column-separators.

       c   last-change date (e.g., chmod)

       d   directory-order  (i.e.,  order  in  which  items were read from the

       D   device-code (displayed when you toggle the display with "2I").

       g   group-identifier (lexically)

       G   group-identifier (numerically)

       i   inode

       l   number of links

       n   filename

       N   filename leaf (i.e., without directory names)

       o   rcs/sccs lock-owner

       p   file-protection mask/mode.

       r   last-access (read) date

       s   file size (bytes)

       S   file size (blocks)

       t   file type (after first ".")

       T   file type (after last ".")

       u   user-identifier (lexically)

       U   user-identifier (numerically)

       v   rcs/sccs versions

       w   last-modification (write) date

       z   rcs/sccs check-in dates

       Z   rcs/sccs check-in dates over modification dates

       You may sort tagged files separately from the remainder of the files by
       following  the  "r"  or  "s"  character with a "+".  For example, "s+w"
       sorts the file list into two  parts,  with  the  tagged  files  at  the
       beginning,   and   untagged  files  following  (both  lists  sorted  by
       modification date).

       To make sorting simpler (there are, after all, a lot of possibilities),
       ded recognizes the following special sort-keys:

       ?   directs ded to show the current sort-key as a message.

       :   causes  ded  to  prompt  you  for the sort-key.  In response to any
           legal sort-key, ded immediately shows the  message  describing  the
           sort.   You  may scroll through the list of possibilities using the
           up/down arrow keys.  To complete the selection,  press  return  (or
           newline).  To quit without sorting the list, type "q".

           (or  return)  directs ded to resort the file list using the current
           direction (i.e., "s" or "r") specifier and the last sort-key.

Grouping Items in the Display

       Both the file-list and directory tree support the notion of tagging  or
       grouping items in the display.  Groups in the file list mark files upon
       which commands can operate as a whole.  Directory tree groups are  used
       to  mark  entries for purging from the database. The following commands
       mark and unmark items for the group:

       +   Add the count entries to the group.  Grouped items are  highlighted
           in the display.  - Remove the count entries from the group.

       _   Remove all entries from the group.

       #   Tags  (or  untags) all files which are currently sorted adjacent in
           the file list, which have the same sort-key.  For instance, if  the
           list is sorted by modification date, the "#" command tags all files
           which have the same modification date as the current entry.  To tag
           all  files having the same sort-key as a neighbor in the file list,
           use "2#".  To untag files having the same sort-key as  the  current
           file, use "0#".

Inline Editing of the File List

       Ded provides you with several built-in commands to modify fields of the
       display.   An  inline  editing  command  is  initiated  with  a  single
       character.   Typing  this  character  again  (while  in  cursor  mode!)
       toggles out of the inline editor.

       Initially, the inline editor is in cursor mode.  If you are  editing  a
       text field (i.e., user-identifier, group-identifier or file-name), then
       you may toggle to insert mode by typing CTL/I (tab).

       q   (cursor) aborts the command.

           (cursor) completes the command.  A newline or return in either mode
           will also complete it.

           (insert)  Typing  a  printing character while in insert mode causes
           that character to be inserted into the field.

           (insert) deletes the character to the left of the cursor.

           (insert) deletes the word to the left of the cursor.

           (insert) deletes the character at the cursor position.

           (cursor) moves cursor left one column within the edited field.  The
           backspace key does the same operation.

           (cursor)  moves  cursor  right  one column within the edited field.
           The form-feed (CTL/L) key does the same thing.

           saves the current set of editing keystrokes and  replays  an  older
           set from the command's history.  CTL/P does the same thing.

           saves  the  current  set of editing keystrokes and replays an newer
           set from the command's history.  CTL/N does the same thing.

           toggles between cursor and insert modes.  While in cursor mode  for
           text  fields,  the  field  is  highlighted  and prefixed with a "^"

           move cursor to beginning of field

           move cursor to end of field

Built-in Operations on Groups of Files

       Inline file-oriented commands operate  on  the  current  entry.   Where
       appropriate,  commands  operate  on  a tagged group of entries as well.
       (If any files are grouped, the file list heading is highlighted).

       p   Edit protection-code for group  of  entries.   The  code  from  the
           current  entry  is  edited  inline.   The  result  is  used for all
           selected entries.  Editing is done with single characters:

           p   complete command  (a  newline  or  return  also  completes  the

           q   abort command

               set  chmod-field to the given value, which must be in the range
               0 to 7.

               move cursor right 3 columns (or the next octal digit if the "P"
               toggle is in effect).

               move  cursor  left 3 columns (or to the previous octal digit if
               the "P" toggle is in effect).

           P   toggles display mode (current  line  only)  between  octal  and

           s   toggles  "set  user id" or "set group id" bit, according to the
               position of the cursor.

           t   toggles "save swapped text" bit if cursor points  to  the  last
               chmod field.

               move cursor to beginning of field

               move cursor to end of field

       u   Edit  user-identifier  field.   The  current  entry's uid is edited
           inline and the result used for all selected entries.

       g   Edit group-identifier field.  The current  entry's  gid  is  edited
           inline, and the result used for all selected entries.

       T   If  the  "-D"  option  was given, you can edit the selected file or
           directory's modification time by moving the cursor  left/right  and
           using  "+"  or  "-"  to  increment  or  decrement  the  part of the
           modification time on which the cursor lies.

       =   Edit name of current file.  Files which  are  grouped  are  renamed
           using  the template formed by your command.  For example, you might
           rename  files  ending  in  ".o"  to  end  in   ".bin"   by   typing
           "= CTL/F CTL/I erase .bin".

       >   Edit  link-text of the current symbolic link.  Symbolic links which
           are grouped are renamed using the template formed by your  command.
           For  example,  you  might edit links beginning with "/local/bin" to
           begin with "/usr/local/bin" by typing "= CTL/I /usr".

       <   Like ">", except that the special substrings "%F", "%B",  "%D"  and
           "%d"  are  translated  into  the  forward,  backward,  original and
           current directory paths in the ring  of  file  lists,  and  "#"  is
           translated into the current entry's name.

       "   Repeats  the last "p", "u", "g", "=" or "c" command.  This uses the
           actual set of characters typed  for  the  command,  so  an  editing
           template  may  be  made.   (Ded  buffers  the  last  set of editing
           keystrokes for inline editors).

       'xx Repeat the last xx command, where xx is one of  the  inline-editing
           commands (e.g., "p", "u", "g", "=", etc).  For example, type


           to  replay the last create-file command.  Ded replays the specified
           command, not including the final newline.  You may modify or reject
           the command.

Creating New Entries

       You  may add new entries to the display list by rescanning with the "R"
       command (to pick up new names which are added by  programs  other  than
       ded.  You may also use ded to create new entries using the "c" command:

       cf  create file

       cd  create directory

       cL  create  hard-link  (to  the current file, whose name is the initial

       cl  create symbolic link (initially with "." for text).

       Each "c" command opens the list at the current position.  You must pro-
       vide  a  name,  using  the same inline name-editing as the "=" command.
       When the name is complete (non-null, and non-conflicting), ded  creates

       The "c" commands may be repeated using the '"' command.

Built-in Operations on the Current File

       The  following  built-in  operations  operate only on the current file,
       because grouping operations would not be meaningful:

       E   If the current entry is a directory (or a symbolic link to a direc-
           tory),  open a new file list on it.  The new list inherits the dis-
           play options and sorting sense, as well as the last  shell  command
           from the current display.

           If the entry is a file, invoke the editor (e.g., vi) on it.

           If the entry is a symbolic link to a file, ded opens a file list in
           the directory containing that file, and positions to that file.

       e   If the current entry is a directory, spawn a new ded  process  with
           that  as argument. If it is a file, invoke the editor (e.g., vi) on

       v   If the current entry is a directory, spawn a new ded  process  with
           that as argument. If it is a file, invoke the browser (e.g, view).

       m   run  the  pager (e.g., more) on the current file.  Ded will not let
           you page directories or other entries which are not regular files.

       On return from the editor, browser and pager, ded prompts  you  (for  a
       return) and then repaints the screen.

       Ded  provides  you  with  a pager which operates in the workspace.  For
       small files, or for just peeking at things, this works much faster than
       spawning  a  copy of more.  The workspace pager displays either text or
       binary files:

       o   When displaying text files,  ded  shows  sequences  of  consecutive
           blank  lines as a single blank line, and shows overstruck or under-
           lined text  with  highlighting.   (Ded  interprets  backspaces  and
           returns  in text files).  You may scroll left or right in the pager
           to see very long lines.

       o   When displaying binary files, ded shows control characters as  ".".
           Non-ASCII characters (i.e., having the high-order bit set) are con-
           verted to ASCII (by stripping this bit) and shown highlighted.

       As you scroll through the file, the pager shows  the  percentage  which
       you  have  viewed  a  la  more.   You may use the following subcommands
       within the workspace pager:

       q   quit the pager.  To prevent accidentally quitting ded,  an  immedi-
           ately succeeding "q" command will clear the workspace.

       w   repaint the screen.

       tab causes  the  tab  stops  used  for  the  text-display to be toggled
           between 4 and 8.  Use a count prefix to specify other tab stops.

           causes a copy of your current screen (obtained from the curses win-
           dow-state)  to  be appended to the file "ded.log" in your process's
           home directory.

       A   move the workspace marker up count lines, redisplay.

       a   move the workspace marker down count lines, redisplay.

       ^   scroll to the beginning of the file.

       $   scroll to the end of the file.

       f   scroll forward count  sub-screens  (also,  the  space  and  newline

       b   scroll backward count sub-screens (also, the backspace key).

       h   scroll left count columns (also, the left-arrow key).

       j   scroll down count rows (also, the down-arrow key).

       k   scroll up count rows (also, the up-arrow key).

       l   scroll right count columns (also, the right-arrow key).

       <   scroll left count/4 screens (also, the CTL/L key).

       >   scroll right count/4 screens (also, the CTL/R key).

       The  "/", "?", "n" and "N" search commands work in the workspace pager.
       All lines containing a match are highlighted.

       The following commands use the workspace pager:

       h   type ded's help-file in the workspace.

       t   type the current file, in the workspace.  Sequences of blank  lines
           are compressed to a single blank line, and overstruck text is high-

           To type a binary-file, use "2t".  This causes ded to  display  non-
           ASCII bytes highlighted.  Typing "3t" causes all non-ASCII bytes to
           be shown as blanks.

           Directory-files are displayed by showing  the  inode  and  filename
           list via a temporary-file.

Shell commands

       Shell  commands  are executed in the work-area.  Ded invokes the Bourne
       shell via the system (2) call.

       !   Prompt for, and execute a shell command.

       %   Prompt for, and execute a shell command, prompting (for return) and
           repainting screen afterwards.

       *   Display  text  of  last  "!" or "%" command.  Use a repeat count to
           display items from the command stack.

       :   Edit text of last "!" or "%" command, re-execute.

       .   Re-execute last "!" or "%" command.

       To re-execute a command while changing the flag which  directs  ded  to
       clear the screen, use a prefix-code:

       0   resets  the  repaint-screen  flag  (so  that  ded won't repaint the

       2   sets the repaint-screen flag.

Command Substitution

       In any shell command which you issue via ded, you may use  the  special
       character  "#" to cause ded to substitute the names of the current- and
       grouped-files.  (A "\" preceding a "#" overrides this).

       You may do more elaborate substitution on the current file using a two-
       character sequence beginning with "%":

       %B  substitutes  the  name  of the directory before the current one, in
           the ring of file lists.

       %d  substitutes the name of the current directory.

       %D  substitutes the name of the original directory from which  ded  was

       %e  substitutes  the current filename, removing all but the ".xxx" part
           (i.e., "extension").

       %F  substitutes the name of the following directory in the ring of file

       %g  substitutes the group-name of the user (who owns) the current file.

       %h or %H
           substitutes  the  name of the current file, after removing the last
           component (i.e., "head").

       %n or %N
           substitutes the name of the current file.

       %o  substitutes the name (if any) of the user who has reserved the cur-
           rent file with RCS or SCCS.

       %r or %R
           substitutes  the  name  of  the  current file, removing ".xxx" part
           (i.e., "root").

       %t  substitutes the current filename,  removing  all  leading  pathname
           components (i.e., "tail").

       %u  substitutes the name of the user (who owns) the current file.

       %v  substitutes  the  highest  RCS/SCCS version of the current file, if

       The %N, %H, %R and %E substitutions are performed  after  concatenating
       the  current  filename  with the current directory, to make an absolute

       Dollar signs and other special  characters  in  filenames  which  could
       cause  problems  in  command  substitution are escaped (prefixed with "

       To insert a literal "%" or "#" character, prefix it with the  backslash
       (\) character.

Command Editing

       You may edit any shell command which you issue to ded, either before it
       is issued, or after, when using the ":" command.   Command  editing  is
       done in either insert or cursor modes, using the same character conven-
       tion as the inline commands (see "Inline Editing of  the  File  List").
       Ded  is initially in insert mode.  When it is in cursor mode, the char-
       acter prefixing the command-entry is set to  a  "^".   Command  editing
       controls are similar to the inline editor, except:

       o   A repeat count may be prefixed to any subcommand in cursor mode.

       o   Commands may be continued (with ded controlling wraparound) as long
           as space remains in the workspace to enter new command text.

       o   A kill character in insert mode  aborts  the  command.   In  cursor
           mode, it deletes the count characters at the cursor position.

Directory Tree

       Ded  maintains  a  database of directory names.  You may scroll in this
       display, as well as enter a new ded process from it.   Cursor  movement
       may be done not only up and down as in the file list, but also left and
       right.  The "/", "?", "n" and "N" search commands work  in  the  direc-
       tory-tree (though they find only leaf names, rather than full paths).

       Commands which manipulate ded's file list state are:

       D   Toggle between directory-tree and file-list display.  Ded will show
           the most recently selected file list, which is marked with "=>".

       E   Enter a new file-list at the indicated directory-name.

       e   Enter a new ded file-list with the indicated  directory  name.   If
           you  have  specified  "-e"  on  the  command line, ded spawns a new

       F   Move forward (with wraparound) in the ring of file lists.

       B   Move backward (with wraparound) in the ring of file lists.

       W   writes the database file (if changes have occurred).

       Commands which modify the display characteristics are:

       &   Sets a flag which causes ded to suppress names  (and  their  depen-
           dents) which begin with "." or "$".

       I   Sets a runtime flag which disables searches into subtrees which are
           made invisible with "V".

       V   Sets a flag in the database for the current entry which directs ded
           to  suppress  subdirectories  from  the  display.   If you supply a
           repeat-count, ded shows up to that many levels.

       w   Repaint the display.

       Z   Directs ded to suppress from the display all RCS and SCCS  directo-

       Commands which operate upon the directory database are:

       R   Read  directory  names at the current position (also done automati-
           cally whenever a file  list  is  constructed).   If  you  supply  a
           repeat-count, ded recurs that many levels.

           Unlike  the  "R"  command  in  the  file-list display, this command
           always attempts to resolve symbolic links to directories.

       +   Mark directory name for removal from database.  - Unmark  directory

       _   Clear list of marked names.

       p   Purge marked names from the database.

       @   Ded  moves  your cursor to the header.  You may edit the path name,
           causing ded to jump to the newly specified  path.   The  path  name
           need not be present in the directory tree; if it is not, it will be
           entered into the tree.

       ~   Like the "@" command, this is used to reposition the cursor  within
           the  tree.  Instead of editing the current path name, you are given
           the home directory token "~".

       :   Finally, you may position your cursor to an entry by specifying its
           number  (displayed  in the left column) by typing ":" (which causes
           ded to prompt for the number).

RCS and SCCS Commands

       Ded provides you with a visual interface to rcs (revision control  sys-
       tem) and sccs (source code control system) files.

       o   For  a  given  file,  the  corresponding  rcs files (by convention)
           reside in a subdirectory called "RCS".   The  rcs  file  names  are
           formed  by suffixing the given file name with two characters (i.e.,

       o   For a given file, the  corresponding  sccs  files  (by  convention)
           reside  in  a  subdirectory called "SCCS".  The sccs file names are
           formed by prefixing the given file name with two characters  (e.g.,
           "p." and "s.").

       Ded  assumes that the rcs files are checked in using the script rcsput,
       and that the sccs files are checked in using the script sccsput.  These
       scripts  extend the basic rcs and sccs scheme by making the file's date
       and the archival check-in date the same.  When directed to do  so,  ded
       will  scan  the  archived  files  to obtain and display the most recent
       check-in date and version.  A special display column shows  the  result
       of the comparison between the file's modification and check-in dates:

           no corresponding archive file was found.

       =   the check-in and modification dates match.

       <   the file's modification date is later than the check-in date.

       >   the file's modification date is earlier than the check-in date.

       Using  ded,  you  can quickly verify which files have been checked into
       rcs or sccs.  Ded's sorting options (i.e., the "v", "y", "z",  and  "Z"
       keys) facilitate this also.

       The following file list commands are used for archive display:

       O   toggle  display  showing the owner of the current lock on the file.
           Ded examines the rcs archive file to see if there are any locks  on
           it.  If so, it displays the name of the first lock-owner

       V   toggle version display.

       Z   toggle  check-in  date display.  The date display has three states:
           off, invisible (except for the comparison column), and visible.  If
           the  archive  display  is  initially  off, ded must scan all of the
           files in the current directory to see which  have  a  corresponding
           rcs  ",v"  or sccs "s." file, and then to extract the check-in date
           and version number.

       z   clears archive display.  Normally the archive display is  inactive,
           since  it  does  slow  ded.   If you accidentally type "z", you can
           recover the data immediately with a  "Z"  command.   Ded  does  not
           reset the archive display data until directed to do so by a re-stat
           command (e.g., "R ", "W" or "l").

       Viewing the check-in date information from within an archive  directory
       shows  the comparison of the archived file's modification date with the
       corresponding file modification date.  This is mostly useful for  show-
       ing  archived  files  for  which  there is no corresponding checked-out

Logfile Format

       The log file created with  the  "-l"  option  logs  all  ded  commands.
       Logged commands begin with the repeat count in column one.  Multi-char-
       acter commands are logged on a single line, e.g.,

            1%ls -l #

       Comments are inserted with a tab followed by a  "#"  character.   Ded's
       log  comments indicate the names of files affected by commands, current
       working directory, etc., e.g.,

                     # process 1417 begun at Thu Mar 16 09:51:11 1989
                     # argv[0] = 'ded'
                     # argv[1] = '-lz'
            1D       # path: //dickey/local/dickey
            1\r      # path: //dickey/local/dickey/bin
            1E       # chdir //dickey/local/dickey/bin
                     # "SCCS"
            1e       # "SCCS"
                     # process 1631 begun at Thu Mar 16 09:51:43 1989
                     # argv[0] = '//dickey/local/dickey/bin/ded'
                     # argv[1] = '-l//dickey/local/dickey/z'
                     # argv[2] = 'SCCS'
            1+       # "s.Makefile"
            1+       # "s.args.c"
            1+       # "s.keycode.c"
            1%ls -l #
                     # execute ls -l s.Makefile s.args.c s.keycode.c
            \r       # Hit <RETURN> to continue
                     # elapsed time = 9 seconds
            1q       # process 1631 ended at Thu Mar 16 09:52:24 1989
                     # process 1417 resuming
            1q       # process 1417 ended at Thu Mar 16 09:52:41 1989

       Ded commands which are read in "raw" (single-character) mode are logged
       as backslash-codes, if necessary, to make them readable (e.g., "\t" for
       tab).  In addition to the standard backslash codes defined  for  the  C
       language, ded also uses

       \s  for space (to make it visible in the log)

       \U  up arrow

       \D  down arrow

       \L  left arrow

       \R  right arrow

       \F  control/F

       \B  control/B

       \B  control/W - usually word-erase

       Other text (which is buffered) contains no non-printing characters.

X Windows Enhancements

       Ded  assumes  that  you are running under the X Window System(R)In this
       case, if the program xterm is found in your execution  path,  ded  will
       permit the following commands:

           edit  the current file (using the default editor invoked by the "e"
           command) in an xterm process.  Ded waits until you have exited from
           the process before continuing.

           view the current file (using the default browser invoked by the "v"
           command) in an xterm process.  Ded does not wait for  you  to  exit
           from this process; it will proceed to accept new commands.

       Ded  also  allows  you  to  move the cursor by clicking with the mouse.
       Double-click to edit a selected item.

       Ded can also handle window-resizing events,  when  properly  configured
       (e.g.,  with  BSD4.x  curses, or ncurses).  When running in an xterm or
       similar terminal emulator  which  supports  the  SIGWINCH  signal,  ded
       resizes the curses display structures.

Color Displays

       If the curses libraries which you use to build ded support color (e.g.,
       SystemV or ncurses),  ded  can  display  filenames  in  color.   It  is
       designed to use the /etc/DIR_COLORS file which supports the Linux color
       ls program.

       Ded looks for the color-file in one of the following locations:


       The color-file specifies terminal types that can display in color,  and
       patterns  and  their corresponding colors.  On Linux, the colors may be
       specified by a series of  numbers.   On  all  systems,  ded  recognizes
       assignments of the form


       to specify the foreground and background of characters.

       Ded  does  not  attempt to manage the background color of your display,
       because that does not work well when mixed with interactive shell  com-
       mands whose output goes to the workspace.


       Ded uses the following environment variables:

           used  to establish where ded is run from, so that the help file can
           be found.

           specifies the order to use when looking for  the  last  version  of
           files  in  RCS, SCCS, CmVision, CVS.  If you do not specify it, the
           default order is "rcs,sccs,cvs,svn", according to their  availabil-
           ity at build time.  Specify CmVision with a "cmv" keyword.  Specify
           CVS with a "cvs" keyword.  Specify SVN with a "svn" keyword.

           overrides the default location of the directory-tree database file.
           Use  this to maintain separate database files on a system which has
           your home directory mounted on several hosts.

           overrides default editor invoked by "e" command (vi)

           overrides default browser invoked by "v " command (view).

           overrides default pager invoked by "m" command (more).

           used to determine control sequences for  cursor  keys  on  computer
           systems which do not support this in curses (3x).

           gives  the  name  of  the rcs directories ded searches for the file
           list "V", "Y" and "Z" commands.   If  not  specified,  ded  assumes

           gives  the  name  of the sccs directories ded searches for the file
           list "V", "Y" and "Z" commands.   If  not  specified,  ded  assumes


       When executed, ded determines (by inspecting the zeroth argument passed
       to it by the shell, as well as the contents of the PATH variable) where
       it  was executed from.  Its help file ded.hlp is checked in the datadir
       (compile-time data directory), If not found there,  the  help  file  is
       assumed to reside in the same directory.

       The  directory  tree manager maintains its database in your home direc-
       tory (i.e., the path is derived from your process's uid).  The name  of
       the  file is ".ftree".  If changes have been made to the memory copy of
       the database, this file is  updated  whenever  ded  spawns  a  copy  of
       itself, or when exiting from ded.


       Make  spawned  ded  processes  inherit display options from the current

       Provide more transparent use of symbolic links (in the directory tree),
       including storing and showing link text.

       Enhance  the  treatment  of  multiple viewports.  This would permit the
       user to group files in one file  list  and  then  move  the  cursor  to
       another  file  list  to operate upon the group files (e.g., a bulk move
       without typing a path name).  Additionally, the user would be  able  to
       sort  the  viewports  independently,  as well as operate upon different
       directories (from the directory-ring).

       Use the SHELL environment variable, and parse arguments so  that  shell
       commands need not use the Bourne shell.


       rcsput(1), rcsget(1), sccsput(1), sccsget(1)


       Thomas E. Dickey <>.